Alumni: PANGeA Doctoral Scholarship Programme

The PANGeA doctoral scholarship programme was launched in 2010 as part of Stellenbosch University’s contribution to the PANGeA network through the establishment of the Graduate School, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences.

Over 75 candidates, nominated by PANGeA partner institutions, have enrolled in the full-time doctoral scholarship programme since 2010 of which 57 have since graduated and resumed their academic positions at their home institution. A total 83% of PANGeA PhD graduates completed in 3 years or less.

2017

Chikaipa

DR VICTOR CHIKAIPA

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2015
Department: General Linguistics
Supervisor: Prof Christine Anthonissen
Co-Supervisor: Dr Taryn Bernard
Dissertation title: A Critical Analysis of Media Discourse After a Natural Flooding Disaster in Malawi, in 2015

Abstract: This is a multimodal critical discourse analysis study that investigates the media discursive strategies in the representation of the catastrophic flooding disaster of January 2015 in Malawi. It analyses the representation of social actors in local print and international online websites, investigating which discursive strategies are typically used to present the selected content, and what the overt and covert meanings are that visual and linguistic texts puts out to their respective implied audiences. The theoretical and analytical framework uses a combination of different approaches within CDA, specifically Fairclough’s (1992, 1995) dialectal relational approach, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s (1996, 2006) Grammar of Visual Design, and Van Leeuwen’s (2008) Social Actor Model. Using a multimodal approach, the study analyses articles purposively selected from a data corpus of 308 news articles that incorporated 313 news images gathered from two local Malawian print media, namely The Daily Times and The Nation, and two international online news websites, The Guardian and Daily Mail Online. The methodology is predominantly qualitative although some elements of quantitative paradigm were used to explain patterns, frequency and or volume of media coverage. The data is organised according to emerging themes, and the analysis is done by critical reading of the verbal and visual texts. The findings are that both the local and international media use discursive strategies that negatively represented the floods as destructive without due attention to the possible contribution of unsustainable agricultural activities of humans that are likely to have triggered or exacerbated the disaster and its effects. In addition, overlapping and interlocking discourses, namely humanitarian, hegemonic and expertise discourses, are evident of the dependencies in the global north – south divide. Further, there is a generic positive portrayal of the donor countries and non-profit organisations as effective and with agency, and at the same time a negative representation of the Malawian government and victims of the crisis as passive recipients of the relief aid. Although the multimodal analysis shows how the reporting upholds and perpetuates stereotypes of gender in the media representation of the disasters, this analysis established that there is minimal difference between ways in which men and women are portrayed by the local (insider) as compared to the international (outsider) media. This is significant considering another stereotype according to which the people of the UK are seen to be relatively liberal and sensitive to gender role casting as opposed to the African media that are seen be relatively conservative in subscribing to traditional gender role casting. Overall, the findings reveal that the media representation of the floods is not neutral; rather it is socially constructed with various ideological perspectives. The study contributes greatly to an understanding of the general linguistic and visual discursive tendencies that local print and international media use in the portrayal of participants in a flooding disaster that occurred in a relatively remote country such as Malawi. In addition, it fills a gap that exists in semiotics on the empirical studies that focus on the interplay between verbal texts and images in disaster representations in African contexts specifically, and in the global south more broadly.

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Kangalawe

DR HEZRON KANGALAWE

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2015
Department: History
Supervisor: Prof Sandra Swart
Dissertation title: Plantation Forestry in Tanzania: A History of Sao Hill Forests, 1939-2015

Abstract: This thesis uses plantation forests from the colonial to the postcolonial period as a lens to explore the history of Tanzania between 1939 and 2015. The thesis discusses transitions within plantation forestry by using the changing history of the Sao Hill, the biggest plantation forest in Tanzania. The thesis weaves together the varied factors that led to the establishment of the Sao Hill plantation, first during the colonial period, when it was established as a means of ameliorating the micro-climates around tea farms and white commercial farms. Secondly, during the postcolonial period, it was part of implementing Basic Industrial Strategy (BIS) policy aimed at introducing industries that could reduce imports from 1967. While the colonial government compensated the customary land owners to get land for afforestation, the postcolonial government did not compensate as it resettled under the rubric of African Socialism, famously known as Ujamaa villages, between 1973 and 1976. Moreover, the thesis demonstrates that, due to the weak economy, the state resorted to the World Bank to get a loan. The World Bank loan, issued in 1976 and renewed in 1982, influenced subsequent state-driven afforestation behaviour and management in Tanzania. A Biodiversity paradigm (stemming from the 1980s) on forestry conservation attracted international donors to fund more natural forests than plantations. From the late 1980s, economic liberalization was implemented which caused some of the land owners to use ‘weapons of the weak’ to resist the means used by the state to take their customary land. This thesis ends by exploring the means deployed by the government to curb fire outbreaks and encroachment cases at the Sao Hill plantation. While the plantation forest management protected the plantation forest by adhering to some elements of the participatory forest management, a practice more common in the natural forests management, the state tried to control encroachment cases and boundary conflicts with the Sao Hill forest between 1986 and 2013. While participatory methods reduced fire outbreaks, neither the commissions of inquiry nor the participatory measures succeeded in solving encroachment in some villages like Mapanda where two private companies and individual woodlot developers had bought almost three quarters of the village land. Therefore, this thesis argues that the plantation forestry in Tanzania is a product of many factors which can be summarized into environmental and economic ones.

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Karani

DR MICHAEL KARANI

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2015
Department: African Languages
Supervisor: Prof Marianna Visser
Dissertation title: Syntactic Categories and Argument Structure in Parakuyo-Maasai

Abstract: This study investigated issues pertaining to the properties of verbal affixes in Parakuyo that give rise to different realizations of the external and internal arguments. The study examines a range of argument realizations and alternation licensed by verbs with specific lexical-semantic, event semantic and morpho-syntactic properties introduced by the particular verbal suffixes. Thus, the study explores the interfaces of the linguistic components, mainly morphology and syntax in the Parakuyo grammar. The data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from native speakers of the Parakuyo dialect. The theoretical framework and key perspectives employed in the study relate to key concepts underlying developments in generative syntax including Principles and Parameters theory, Minimalist Program, Distributed Morphology, Voice theory, ‘little’ v, and Cartography theory. This study employs a multi-perspective framework for investigating the lexical-semantics, event semantics and morpho-syntax of the verbal category system of affixes correlated with argument structure alternations of various kinds that necessitate exploring the interfaces between morphology and syntax that cannot be accounted for by employing any one theory. This study provides account of a range of the properties of syntactic structures in Parakuyo exemplifying the various verbal derivation affixes. Different syntactic diagnostics tests for external argument have been employed to determine whether the reference of the implicit argument can be retrieved, particularly in argument suppressing suffixes, namely the impersonal and the middle in Parakuyo. Among the diagnostic tests applied, include possibilities of modification by by-phrases, PPs modification, by-itself phrases, agentive adverbials and purpose clauses. The findings give evidence that impersonals and middles in Parakuyo do not permit an agent to occur as a subject DP or as a PP adverbial but causer, causer-event and instrumental-causer can occur in a PP modification. Both impersonal and middle verb constructions can be modified by manner-oriented adverbs. The study also relates the discussions of the verbal affixes and argument realization with other pertinent aspects like information structure and aspectual types in the events denoted by the verbs. In addition, the study examines argument-introducing affixes in Parakuyo verb constructions. These affixes are the causative, the instrumental, the dative, the motion away and motion towards affixes. The investigation of these verbal constructions demonstrates the processes of argument realization and alternation in the Parakuyo dialect. The mapping of the thematic roles for each argument introduced is done parallel to various arguments in the clauses. Furthermore, the study examines verbal suffixes in Parakuyo that do not suppress the external argument but have effect on the internal argument in various ways including the thematic roles of such arguments. The findings suggest that both the antipassive and reciprocal in a way suppress the internal argument while reflexive constructions exhibit mixed properties towards the status of internal argument, that is, introducing the internal argument by its morphology and suppressing the same through its reflexive pronoun. Inchoative focuses on the change of state of its internal argument rendering the resultant-state. It is concluded that the multifaceted theoretical framework employed in this study is necessitated for adequately analysing the Parakuyo data.

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Laizer

DR NEEMA LAIZER

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2015
Department: English Studies
Supervisors: Dr Jeanne Ellis and Prof Grace Musila
Dissertation title: Configuring 'Maasainess': Contested Textual Embodiments

Abstract: In this thesis I seek to trace the figure of the Maasai as a fossilized (visual) image circulated in local and global imaginaries since the nineteenth century by British explorers, missionaries and administrators. This image of either the male warrior or wounded woman continues to be reproduced in literary and cultural productions from East Africa, America and Europe. My study explores the notion of ‘Maasainess’ as a cultural identity being claimed, appropriated, redefined and performed in various genres by non-Maasai and Maasai authors and musicians. I am particularly interested in exploring how this construct circulates in contemporary texts and performances that also contest and transform it in response to the Maasais’ negotiation of their cultural identity due to land grabbing in the name of environmental sustainability and the impact of globalization and contact with other cultures, notably through the tourist industry and urbanisation. Following the introductory chapter in which the historical and theoretical framing of the thesis is established, I discuss four autobiographically inflected novels by the prolific Maasai male writer Henry Ole Kulet as a basis for my further exploration of the portrayal of ‘Maasainess’. This is followed by the third chapter in which four autobiographies by two male Maasai writers and two female non-Maasai writers, one from Switzerland and the other from the United States, are examined in relation to the notion of cultural appropriation. The fourth chapter looks at two historically inflected novels by the former British settler in Tanzania, David Read and the Australian UN expatriate in Kenya, Frank Coates, who both claim an affiliation with the Maasai as the basis for their fictions, in order to engage the history of settler colonialism. The fifth chapter shifts the focus to contemporary popular cultural performances of ‘Maasainess’ by analysing three songs by a non-Maasai duo, Shengena Gospel Panorama, and two Maasai musicians, Abel Motika and Lekishon Ole Kamwaro. The thesis therefore attempts a multi-genre approach to reading texts in which the figure of the Maasai is configured within a range of contexts. In this, I am primarily guided by Rosi Braidotti’s concept of “nomadic embodiment” and Mary Louise Pratt’s notion of the “contact zones” as facilitating change and challenging the fixity of stereotype. My argument is that ‘Maasainess’ is a shifting cultural signifier at porous contact zones where cultural exchanges continuously occur. Therefore, this figure renders itself available to various appropriations, reconfigurations and contestations.

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Luhende

DR PAUL LUHENDE

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2015
Department: African Languages
Supervisors: Prof Marianna Visser
Dissertation title: Lexical-semantic and Morpho-syntactic properties of English Loanwords in Sukuma

Abstract: This study investigates the lexical-semantic and morpho-syntactic properties of English loanwords in Sukuma in the domains of the Determiner Phrase DP, Inflectional Phrase IP and Verb Phrase VP. The primary data of English loanwords in Sukuma were collected through audio-recordings of spoken language in discourse-pragmatic contexts, and through the method of introspection, in addition to consultation of available published sources. The researcher consulted Sukuma native speakers in the provision of additional loanword data and for confirming the data collected. The data on English loanwords in Sukuma collected, were analysed and examined invoking the broad framework of generative syntax, as postulated by Chomsky in the Government and binding theory (Chomsky, 1981a; Carnie, 2006; 2013) and Principle and Parameter Theory, with specific focus on Abney’s syntactic Determiner Phrase (DP) hypothesis, as proposed by Abney (1987). In the framework employed in this study, the generative syntax theory is complemented by perspectives from language typology as postulated by Greenberg (1963) and further developed by Croft, (2003) and Haspelmath, (2009), in the investigation of the argument structure properties of verbs. The findings of the study demonstrate that English loanwords in Sukuma exhibit lexical-semantic and morpho-syntactic properties similar to inherent (i.e. native) Sukuma words. In the DP domain, English loan nouns are modified to conform to the Sukuma nominal morphology. Each English loan noun, for example, is assigned to the Sukuma noun class system, exemplifying a noun class prefix. Furthermore, various inherent Sukuma nominal affixes are evidenced to occur with English loan nouns, similarly to inherent Sukuma nouns. The findings of the study give evidence that some of the English loan nouns in Sukuma undergo semantic broadening, semantic narrowing, or semantic shift, and that borrowed compound nouns are lexicalized in Sukuma. In regard to the IP and VP domains, the findings of the study give evidence that English loan verbs are modified for integration into the complex agglutinative Sukuma verbal morphology. For example, English loan verbs inflect for the three tense forms and they occur with various Sukuma verbal derivational suffixes, such as the applicative and causative, hence exhibiting the same morpho-syntactic properties similar so inherent Sukuma verbs. The findings of the study, however, demonstrate that some English loan verbs do not exhibit properties similar to inherent Sukuma verbs. It is argued that some English verbs are not accommodated fully in the Sukuma verbal system, possibly due to the typological difference between Sukuma and English. The resistant English verbs in regard to the integration in the Sukuma verbal morphology include verbs denoting human activities, such as eating, swallowing and crying. It is proposed in this study that English verbs borrowed in Sukuma, in most cases, are associated with the development of science and technology, and innovation, thus, they express new concepts and entities which did not previously occur in the lexicon of Sukuma.

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Nakijoba

DR SARAH NAKIJOBA

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2015
Department: General Linguistics
Supervisors: Dr Kate Huddlestone
Dissertation title: Pragmatic Markers in L1 Luganda-L2 English Bilingual Spoken Discourse: A Relevance-theoretic approach

Abstract: In this dissertation, I examine the manifestation of Luganda and English pragmatic markers as embedded elements, and analyse the procedural roles they play in facilitating interaction in bilingual spoken discourse. Pragmatic markers (PMs) are procedural expressions such as so, but, and kubanga (because), which facilitate interaction by guiding the hearer towards an interpretation intended by the speaker. Spoken interactions involving bilingual speakers of L1 Luganda and L2 English are characterised by spontaneous code-switching, in which certain Luganda PMs are used in English utterances as though they were native PMs, and vice versa. By focusing on the English PM so and the Luganda PM kubanga as code-switched PMs in Luganda and English respectively, the study aims to analyse their manifestation as single PM occurrences and as PMs occurring in monolingual and bilingual combinations. The study examines the contextual, operational and domain status of PMs as embedded elements, assesses their procedural roles in facilitating interaction within their contexts, and establishes whether the procedural roles they play as embedded elements in bilingual discourse are similar to, or different from, the roles they would play in related monolingual contexts. The analysed PMs are extracted from a Luganda-English bilingual spoken corpus of 192 000 words. The corpus was obtained from verbatim transcriptions of 23 hours of audio recordings of interviews and discussions with 41 adult L1 Luganda-L2 English bilingual speakers. The analysis is theoretically informed by two approaches. The first is Blakemore’s (1987, 2002) Relevance-theoretic (RT) notion of procedural encoding, which assumes that PMs constrain the implicatures of the utterances they introduce by guiding the hearer to the relevant contextual assumptions, thereby reducing their processing effort. The second approach is Myers-Scotton’s (1993a, 2002) Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model, which explains the structural configurations of embedded PMs within bilingual clauses. The findings show that, as expected, the Luganda and the English PM systems are in contact. During bilingual communication situations, bilingual speakers take advantage of the availability of the extra resources and they employ PMs from both systems. To enhance communication, speakers select PMs which they judge to be more relevant in encoding certain procedural relations from either language. So and kubanga are examples of such PMs. As embedded PMs, so and kubanga operate predominantly as code-switches, which occur singly and in monolingual and bilingual PM combinations. Coexistence of Luganda and English PMs is evidenced in functional overlaps in which more than one procedurally identical PM from Luganda and English co-occur in the same environment and in literal translation where PMs in functional competition are partially or completely translated. So and kubanga are multifunctional PMs and they operate on different planes and domains to signal context-dependent procedural information. In general, the procedural roles they encode as embedded elements are not significantly different from the roles they play in similar contexts in monolingual discourse. To achieve more universal conclusions about the nature, manifestation and procedural underpinnings of the contested aspects related to PMs, the study recommends a comprehensive analysis based on multi-modal and cross-linguistic data, as well as integrative synchronic and diachronic approaches to the analysis of PMs.

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Ndomba

DR HERBERT NDOMBA

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2015
Department: History
Supervisors: Prof Sandra Swart
Dissertation title: A History of Peasant Tobacco Production in Ruvuma Region, Southern Tanzania, C. 1930-2016

Abstract: This thesis is a contribution to the broader East African historiography of environmental and agrarian change and more specifically the tobacco industry in Tanzania. This thesis joins an existing academic conversation between historians (and, more inter-disciplinarily, others like agro-economists and ecologists) on the conceptualisation of African peasants, the rise of peasant protests, the tension and accommodations between state and peasants, the marketing of peasant commodities and the ecological impact of one crop-‘flue-cured tobacco’ farming in both central and western Tanzania. This thesis focuses on the establishment, control, and resultant socio-environmental and political impacts of ‘fire-cured tobacco’ peasant production in the Ungoni and Undendeuli areas of Ruvuma in southern Tanzania. It examines the rise of a peasantry tied to tobacco production in three phases. First, it examines the role of the state in the establishment and control of African commercial tobacco production between the 1930s and 1950s. Secondly, it traces the changing fortunes of local peasant cooperatives in the control of tobacco production between the mid-1950s and the early 1970s. Finally, it assesses the postcolonial socio-economic and environmental impact of tobacco production in Ruvuma between the 1970s and the mid-2010s. This study draws on archival materials, oral testimonies, and geographic information systems (GIS) to provide an historical analysis of the complex relationships among the key tobacco actors including the state, cooperatives, tobacco companies and the local tobacco-growing peasants. It demonstrates that tobacco production was started in Ruvuma during the 1930s ‘Plant More Crops’ campaign as an attempt to rehabilitate the British economy and to improve rural livelihoods after the Great Depression. Over time, the tobacco industry became an important source of permanent cash income for the Wangoni and Wandendeuli men and women of Ruvuma – as well as a means of generating state revenue and of profit accumulation by the tobacco companies. The thesis extends James Scott’s ‘weapons of the weak’ and Elinor Ostrom’s ‘governing the commons’ approaches to demonstrate that this apparently short-lived ‘success story’ of peasant tobacco production towards the mid-2010s came at a terrible cost: the impoverishment of rural peasants, a decline in the tobacco industry, and deforestation in parts of southern Tanzania.

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2016

KIMAMBO, Gerald

DR GERALD KIMAMBO

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2014
Department: General Linguistics
Supervisor: Dr Simone Conradie
Co-Supervisor: Dr Johan Oosthuizen
Dissertation title: Acquisition of (in)definiteness in English as a Foreign Language by Tanzanian L1 Swahili Secondary School Learners

Abstract: The study reported in this dissertation examined the acquisition of (in)definiteness in English as a foreign language (EFL) by secondary school learners with Swahili as their first language (L1) in Tanzania. It focused on (i) the anaphoric, associative and encyclopaedic contexts (for definiteness), (ii) the first mention, opaque and transparent contexts (for indefiniteness), and (iii) the use of articles in specific and non-specific contexts, in writing and in speaking. Although English is the medium of instruction from secondary school onwards in Tanzania, it is still a foreign language. Consequently, most learners only receive exposure to English in the EFL classroom, and most EFL teachers struggle with English themselves (Qorro, 2006). It is thus unsurprising that these learners manifest non-target-like performance in their EFL use of articles (among other aspects of English). This study aimed at determining which contexts of the English article system manifest as non-target-like in Swahili-speaking learners’ EFL use and, based on the findings, providing EFL teachers in Tanzania with suggestions regarding the contexts that require special pedagogical attention. Whereas English realises grammatical definiteness via its article system, Swahili realises semantic-pragmatic definiteness via the context of interaction. For this reason, data from Swahili-speaking EFL learners could be used in the present study to address the Article Choice Parameter (Ionin, Ko & Wexler, 2004), the Fluctuation Hypothesis (ibid.), the Syntactic Misanalysis Account (Trenkic, 2007) and the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (Prévost & White, 2000). Based on a cross-linguistic analysis of English and Swahili, the specific predictions were that Swahili-speaking EFL learners would omit articles at the elementary level of proficiency, and that they would fluctuate between definiteness and specificity at the intermediate level of proficiency. The mixed methods study reported in this dissertation involved collecting (i) quantitative data from 163 Swahili-speaking EFL learners by means of an acceptability judgement task, a forced choice elicitation task and a picture-description task, and (ii) qualitative data from 10 EFL teachers via semi-structured interviews. An analysis of the quantitative data indicated that the learners transferred the bare noun phrase structure of their L1 Swahili and used ‘noun+pronoun’ pairings to realise definiteness in English, mostly at the elementary level of proficiency. They also fluctuated between definiteness and specificity. Concerning the contexts referred to above, the use of the Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za iii indefinite article, the anaphoric use of the definite article and the opaque use of the indefinite article manifested as non-target-like more often than the other contexts. The interview data revealed that most of the teachers did not have a sufficient level of proficiency in English, training in implementing the current curriculum or expertise in teaching the article system communicatively. The findings of the present study suggest the need to revise the current language in education policy and to ensure that teachers receive training in implementing the curriculum and making use of the Focus on Form approach. The study concludes with some specific suggestions for EFL teachers in Tanzania regarding teaching the English article system to their Swahili-speaking learners.

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Makwa

DR DOMINIC MAKWA

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2013
Department: Music
Supervisor: Dr Ralph Kohler
Co-Supervisor: Dr Sylvia Nannyonga-Tamusuza
Dissertation title: Discourse and practices of preservation: Local communities and audio-visual archiving in contemporary Uganda

Mtenje

DR ASANTE MTENJE

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2014
Department: English
Supervisor: Prof Sally-Ann Murray
Co-Supervisor: Dr Riaan Oppelt
Dissertation title: Contemporary fictional representations of sexualities from authoritarian African contexts

Abstract: In this dissertation, I investigate the contentious subject of sexualities as represented in fiction from selected Anglophone African countries which, even post-independence, have tended to enforce authoritarian, hetero-patriarchal control. The study explores how contemporary African writers, writing in (or in relation to) repressive contexts, represent uneasy intersections between socio-cultural understandings of sexuality, gender, and desire, entailing varieties of relation such as control, reciprocity, negotiation and resistance. Allowing for some flexibility in categories, the dissertation analyses the treatment of male sexualities in novels by Helon Habila, Moses Isegawa, and Tendai Huchu; female sexualities in novels by Sefi Atta, Doreen Baingana, and Lola Shoneyin, and depictions of queer sexualities in short fiction by Monica Arac de Nyeko, Chinelo Okparanta, Stanley Onjezani Kenani, and Beatrice Lamwaka. All of these writers, in their respective contexts, offer fictional representations that unevenly subvert hegemonic sexual norms and discourses, even while they also draw on received ways of making sense of gendered and sexual identities. The thesis argues that such ambiguities attest to the complexity of understanding and representing sexualities in Africa, and that fiction, precisely because of its capacity to engage uncertainty, comprises an important mode of mediating repressive socio-political and cultural norms, showing the potential for fiction as a space which engages risky, even taboo, topics. The fictional texts studied make a varied case against the common assumption of a restrictive, monolithic, supposedly proper “African sexuality” that authoritarian governments attempt to reinforce. I argue that through the narrative spaces of fiction, contemporary African authors highlight the tensions and contradictions which shape sexualities, with regimes of sexual knowledge being always in a process of relational negotiation, even in coercive socio-political contexts.

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Nahayo

DR SYLVIA NAHAYO

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2014
Department: General Linguistics
Supervisors: Dr Marcelyn Oostendorp and Dr Frenette Southwood
Dissertation title: Construction of linguistic identities among cross-border communities: The case of Samia of Uganda and Samia of Kenya

Abstract:This dissertation investigated the discursive identity construction of a community who is separated by a national border. The town of Busia cuts across the Ugandan/Kenyan border and the community language is considered to be Lusamia. The study used ethnographic methods to investigate how speakers of Lusamia on both sides of the border construct their linguistic identities in relation to their own linguistic repertoires and the linguistic repertoires of others. My theoretical interest in this was sparked by a gap in the literature, namely, that most studies which investigate language and identity construction within multilinguals focus on urban communities. Although early sociolinguistic studies within the ethnographic tradition, focused on rural communities (Gumperz 1971, 1964; Hymes 1962, 1964), recently the city has become the most frequently studied setting for multilingualism. My study builds on a small (but growing) body of research on contemporary multilingualism in rural African communities (see for example Banda and Jimaima 2015); Deumert and Mabandla 2013). Against this backdrop, I examined how speakers of Lusamia that live in a rural community and are multilingual negotiate different linguistic identities just like their counterparts in the urban centers. My study will thus turn the attention (back) on the everyday linguistic practices of a rural, multilingual community within an African context. Data for this study were collected using various ethnographically informed methods. The data collection instruments included observations, interviews and a survey of the linguistic landscape. Linguistic landscapes are defined as ―the language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, etc.‖ (Landry and Bourhis, 1997: 25). Data were collected over a period of 12 months and analysed through thematic analysis (Starks and Trinidad, 2007). Two major themes emerged, that is: multilingualism as linguistic repertoire and the interplay of language, spacialisation and identity. Findings from this study suggest that participants typically have a range of linguistic resources in their repertoire. These linguistic resources are used differently by the speakers depending on the situation they are in. Sometimes the lack of the required linguistic resources(s) in a particular situation may exclude the speaker or lead to failure in communication. Furthermore, as Busch (2012) observes, the linguistic repertoire does not only include actual linguistic varieties used, but also ideologies about language. In the two countries in which Lusamia is spoken (Kenya and Uganda), different linguistic resources may be used or understood. This interaction of the different linguistic resources with Lusamia explains the subtle differences in accent and word choice in the speech of participants on both sides of the border. These differences are constructed as the distinguishing features between the Ugandan and Kenyan varieties of Samia. Thus as Samia speakers engage in various activities that call for use of different linguistic resources, they constantly negotiate different linguistic identities. Furthermore, the identity of Samia speakers is very much a multilingual one. Even rituals evolving major milestones or major events (birth, marriage, death) are performed through the use of heteroglossic meaning-making resources. In view of the results, I suggest that more research into language and identity needs to take a multilingual, spatial perspective.

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Nyanda

DR DAVIS NYANDA

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2014
Department: African Languages
Supervisors: Prof Mwande Dlali
Dissertation title: Argument quality in Tanzanian parliamentary discourse in Kiswahili in budget speeches and debates

Sonnekus

DR THEO SONNEKUS

Home country: South Africa

PANGeA partner: Stellenbosch University
Year of enrolment: 2013
Department: Visual Arts
Supervisors: Prof Lize van Robbroeck
Dissertation title: Seeing ghosts: The past in contemporary images of Afrikaner self-representation

Abstract: Contemporary Afrikaner ethnic identity is subject to attempts at rehabilitation, which seek to fit Afrikaner whiteness to the post-apartheid milieu. This thesis investigates how popular visual culture, aimed particularly at the white Afrikaner consumer, provides transformative identity-positions by ingeniously re-imagining Afrikanerness. The potential of such images for identity- and memory-work is explored in relation to the various conditions (political, historical, economic or otherwise) that determine their social and psychological significance. The thesis particularly accounts for the manner in which the past is refigured (with varying degrees of criticality and self-reflexivity) in these consumer items and advertisements, and explores their deployment of discursive devices such as irony, hybridisation, nostalgia, and collective memory.

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Tembo

DR NICK TEMBO

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2014
Department: English Studies
Supervisors: Prof Grace Musila, Dr Wamui Mbao and Dr Emmanuel Ngwira
Dissertation title: Trauma in selected East African fiction and life writings on civil wars, 2000 - 2014

Abstract:This study draws attention to and explores the portrayal of civil war in East African fictional and autobiographical works. Specifically, it examines the various and distinct ways in which East African writers use literature and art to translate and transmit the physical, vicarious and psychological trauma resulting from intra-state conflicts in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. My aim in embarking on this project is to demonstrate, qua Silvia Pellicer-Ortín, that trauma studies can provide useful methodological tools for the analysis of the representation of trauma in fictional and autobiographical works, bringing to the fore specific narrative techniques in order to represent both individual and collective trauma. Works of a diverse selection of East African authors are selected for this study. These texts indicate that art can provide an enabling forum for retrieving, relieving and re-evaluating violent contexts and their (dis)continuities in East Africa. I build my reading around theoretical aspects on postcolonial criticism and trauma studies. From postcolonial criticism I particularly draw on Homi Bhabha’s views to situate the terms hybridity, place/displacement, DissemiNation, enunciation, identity formation, ambivalence, nationalism, alterity and otherness in my study. The main point here is to explore the ways in which the uncanny nature of violence in the selected East African (con)texts reflects the aforementioned terms, which I read as postcolonial realities. In the main, however, I examine the selected works as embodying classic narrative devices of trauma fiction in their mediation of civil war discourse and how it leads to trauma. Thus I draw from trauma scholars working in various disciplines, such Cathy Caruth, Geoffrey Hartman, Dominick LaCapra, Shoshana Felman and Judith Herman, in order to explore how notions of “the uncanny,” “the unhomely” and “latency” are reflected in traumatised individuals, groups and communities in postcolonial East African contexts. The study finds that in many ways, literature and art may be positioned in a discursive space between instruction and enlisting larger publics in the project of redressing harm. To this end, the study proposes that literature and art are good fora for campaign against human rights violations; that such a clarion call as inscribed in the selected texts reflects María Pía Lara’s notion of the illocutionary power of literature.

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Yenjela

DR DAVID YENJELA

Home country: Kenya

PANGeA partner: University of Nariobi
Year of enrolment: 2014
Department: English Studies
Supervisors: Prof Grace Musila and Dr Godwin Siundu
Dissertation title: Narrated histories of selected Kenyan novels, 1963 - 2013

Abstract: This thesis explores the novel‘s potential to interrogate, reimagine and reflect on the histories of nations, particularly the Kenyan nation. It engages with selected Kenyan novels written in both English and Kiswahili for a period of fifty years of post-independence Kenya in a quest that reveals the novels‘ contributions in imagining, shaping, and reflecting on the nation‘s histories. The temporal space under focus — 1963 to 2013, provides a sufficient canvas that enables identification of shifts and continuities, transformations and regressions, and how novelists make sense of the changing times. The task of approaching Kenya‘s narrated histories through the two dominant national languages, Kiswahili and English, is productive since it taps into not only histories that are language oriented, but also various narrative patterns resultant from the Kiswahili and English literary traditions in Kenya. Furthermore, as opposed to focusing on one novelist‘s portrayal of the nation, the thesis explores texts from a range of novelists from different generational and geographical locations. This offers diverse insights into Kenya‘s histories as it is anchored on the belief that an assembly of various ―artistically organized‖ (Bakhtin 262) voices from carefully chosen novels offers a richer portrait of Kenyan novelists‘ conversations with their histories. The thesis foregrounds how novelists ―reflect, and reflect on, extant perspectives in understanding reality by creating new maps of existence through ideas that not only generate, but also transcend existing possibilities and ways of apprehending those possibilities‖ (Adebanwi 407). Reflections on the nation‘s represented histories presuppose a quest for transformation of values, policies, and laws that govern society. This is the motivation of re-imagining and reconfiguring troubled, often suppressed, histories of Kenya, which at times erupt in form of violent conflicts, as seen for instance in the 2007/2008 post-election violence. In an attempt to understand contemporary Kenya‘s gender and socio-economic inequalities, ethnic tensions, particular regions‘ quests for secession on various grounds, and state malpractices on the one hand, and certain individuals‘ sacrificial campaigns for a transformed society on the other, the thesis charts through the precolonial, colonial, and post-independent Kenyan continuum. The thesis focuses on selected novels‘ subject and themes and comments on style and structure where into or supports the argument being advanced. Through this approach, the thesis emphasises interrogation of inhibitive structural and perceptual foundations by reading novels that engage Kenya as a contact zone, Kenya‘s state histories, socio-political histories embedded in romance novels, and the urban novel‘s engagement with impoverished but resilient urbanites. Overall, the thesis convenes a reflection on the interface between Kenyan histories and artistic engagements with these histories.

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2015

DR FLORENCE BAYIGA

DR FLORENCE BAYIGA

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2013
Department: General Linguistics
Supervisor: Prof Christine Anthonissen
Co-Supervisor: Dr Ondene Van Dulm
Dissertation title: Profiles of multilingualism in Kampala: An analysis of language biographies and linguistic repertoires among university students

Abstract: This is a sociolinguistic study that investigates the language biographies and repertoires that underpin the kinds of linguistic knowledge students in Kampala, Uganda have acquired by the time they enter university. The study relates such biographies and repertoires to the status of the various languages represented in the study. The concepts of ‘multilingualism’ and ‘linguistic repertoire’ are central to this study as they are relevant to multilingual African communities where a wide variety of indigenous languages are recorded. The study highlights the difficulties of applying standard definitions of these concepts to speakers and communities in countries that have a highly mobile multilingual population. Insight into the linguistic resources students bring to the tertiary classroom could assist in explaining much of the communicative practices encountered among multilingual students, and in developing their linguistic resources for adequate use in academic and professional domains. An overarching objective of this research is to characterise the nature of multilingualism(s) of selected students at a Ugandan university. It also considers how their language biographies gave rise to and shaped their linguistic repertoires, and it shows how these are related to the status of different languages in local communities. The project recorded manifestations of multilingualism among University students in Kampala, investigated how various skills associated with the respective repertoires developed, and analysed how language biographies and linguistic repertoires disclose particular effects of different languages with different kinds of status in Uganda. Research data of three kinds was collected among a group of students at Makerere University, namely (i) meta-data and biographical information for which a questionnaire was used, (ii) multimodal figures in the form of coloured body shapes which participants annotated, and (iii) narratives of a selected number of participants, speakers of different L1s, collected in interviews. The triangulation of data provided by these instruments gave a holistic image of the individuals as social actors, and of the languages they use in the different social contexts in which they enact their lives. The findings of the study give an impression of the variety of languages represented amongst a sample of University students in an urban, tertiary educational setting. It also gives an indication of the mobility of the participants, which had an effect on when and how their Stellenbosch linguistic repertoires were acquired. Perceptions of and attitudes towards the official and indigenous languages including their home languages have been recorded. Informally assigned status of the languages in the country has emerged as part of the detailed profile of the multilingualism of the participants. The study indicates that many conventional definitions of ‘multilingualism’ and how it manifests in individual and community language practices need to be revised to fit linguistic realities as they exist in an African community such as in the urban setting of Kampala.

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DR JOHN ISUNJU

DR JOHN ISUNJU

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2013
Department: Geography and environmental studies
Supervisor: Dr Jaco Kemp
Co-Supervisor: Prof Christopher Garimoi Orach, Makerere University
Dissertation title: Spatiotemporal analysis of encroachment on wetlands: Hazards, vulnerability and adaptations in Kampala city, Uganda

Abstract: Wetlands provide vital ecosystem services including water purification, flood control and climate moderation, which enhance environmental quality, promote public health and contribute to risk reduction. The biggest threat to wetlands is posed by human activities that transform wetlands, often for short-term consumptive uses. Population pressure, urbanization and industrial developments, among other factors, have resulted in severe degradation of wetlands. In the face of increased climate variability, several hazards continue to emerge, affecting the vulnerable sectors of society, especially the poor. This study sought to quantify and map the extents and spatiotemporal dynamics of human activities in wetlands, taking a case of Nakivubo wetland that drains Kampala city’s wastewater to Lake Victoria; assess the range of hazards, perceived vulnerabilities and associated factors among wetland communities, and assess the benefits and opportunities informal wetland communities in Kampala Uganda derive from their location in the wetland and how they adapt to minimise vulnerability to hazards such as floods and disease vectors. In order to achieve the study objectives, a mix of methods were used. These included GIS and Remote sensing techniques for analysis of very high resolution aerial photos and satellite imagery (captured in 2002, 2010 and 2014), a survey of 551 households, four focus group discussions among wetland communities and five key informant interviews with stakeholders. Analysis of land cover in Nakivubo wetland showed a 62% loss of wetland vegetation between 2002 and 2014, which is mostly attributed to crop cultivation. Results from the survey showed floods and waterlogging as the principal hazards; however, secondary effects of floods and waterlogging such as disease vectors and diseases affect more people than the floods. Tenants were more likely to be exposed to floods, but less likely to prefer to adapt, and to perceive themselves able to afford adaptation than landlords/homeowners, and households that spend more than US$ 80 per month were less likely than households that spend less to be exposed to floods. Households that had been exposed to floods before were more likely to perceive themselves as vulnerable. Free water from spring wells and cheaper rental units topped the benefits associated with location while the main benefit associated with the wetland itself is that it supports crop farming. However, cultivation in the buffer wetland vegetation makes it unstable to anchor to the substrate, implying that it will likely be calved away by receding lake waves as evidenced by the 2014 data. With barely no wetland vegetation buffer around the lake, the heavily polluted wastewater streams will further deteriorate the quality of lake water. Furthermore, with increased human activities in the wetland, exposure to flooding and pollution will likely have more impact on the health and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. There is a need for coordinated adaptation strategies that involve all stakeholders, and a multi-faceted approach such as ecosystem-based adaptation needs to be implemented; possibly through zoning out the wetland and restricting certain activities to specific zones so as to enhance equitable utilisation of wetland resources without compromising their ecosystem services and benefits.

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DR DOSELINE WANJIRU KIGURU

DR DOSELINE WANJIRU KIGURU

Home country: Kenya

PANGeA partner: University of Nairobi
Year of enrolment: 2013
Department: English
Supervisor: Dr Daniel Roux
Co-Supervisor: Dr Mathilda Slabbert
Dissertation title: Prizing African literature: Awards and cultural value

Abstract: This study investigates the centrality of international literary awards in African literary production with an emphasis on the Caine Prize for African Writing (CP) and the Commonwealth Short Story Prize (CWSSP). It acknowledges that the production of cultural value in any kind of setting is not always just a social process, but it is also always politicised and leaning towards the prevailing social power. The prize-winning short stories are highly influenced or dependent on the material conditions of the stories’ production and consumption. The content is shaped by the prize, its requirements, rules, and regulations as well as the politics asciated with the specific prize. As James English (2005) asserts, “[t]here is no evading the social and political freight of a global award at a time when global markets determine more and more the fate of local symbolic economies” (298). This research focuses on the different factors that influence literary production to demonstrate that literary culture is always determined by the social, political and economic factors framing its existence. The process through which contemporary African literature, mediated through the international prize, acquires value in the global literary marketplace is the major preoccupation of this study. I discuss the prevalence of prize narratives of pain and suffering, aptly defined as “the Caine aesthetic of suffering” (Habila 2013), and argue against a fixed interpretation of the significance of painful social and political realities. The study calls for a holistic approach to the analysis of postcolonial literature which has previously been labelled as exotic by market forces which commodify difference as strangeness. It recognises that African writers are participants in a crowded global literary scene and they, therefore, must learn to align their work with the market forces, usually dictated by the publishing and award institutions, by devising strategies of visibility within the literary world. My research, therefore, foregrounds the importance of marginality in contemporary African literature, acknowledging that for writers who have historically been classified as belonging to the margins of literature it is important to own that position and use it to dismantle the codes of power and domination evident in literary industry. As demonstrated through the prize stories, marginality is a powerful device used in the award sector to give voice to the unheard, the unseen, the dominated, in order to question disempowerment and domination. The study concludes that in the absence of economic autonomy, African literature will have to work within the limitations of external influence and patronage.

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DR TRACEY MILLIN

DR TRACEY MILLIN

Home country: South Africa

PANGeA partner: Stellenbosch University
Year of enrolment: 2013
Department: General Linguistics
Supervisor: Prof Christine Anthonissen
Dissertation title: Scaffolding academic literacy using the reading to learn methodology: An evaluative study

Abstract: The primary aim of this study was to test and assess the efficacy of an innovative literacy development intervention, Reading to Learn (RtL), with Grade 11 students at two schools within the Winelands District of the Western Cape. The RtL intervention, originally designed to address inequitable literacy development outcomes of students from marginalised communities in Australia, was undertaken against the backdrop of increasingly serious concerns regarding literacy development in primary and secondary education in South Africa. Recent research has confirmed that poor literacy performance at school cannot be divorced from social conditions and educational practices that may exclude some and privilege other learners. In this study, RtL was designed purposefully to scaffold the development of more advanced academic literacy skills, with special support being offered to students with the greater need, whilst still providing sufficient stimulation for better performing students. A characterising feature of RtL is its affordance of equal opportunities to students from outside mainstream Discourses, by providing explicit access to the Discourse of formal schooling. The theoretical conceptual framework of RtL is derived from the work of Halliday (language as a text in a social context), Vygotsky (learning as a social process) and Bernstein (education as a pedagogic device for maintaining inequality). The two central research questions considered (i) whether RtL could be effective in a smallscale South African secondary school context, and (ii) whether RtL outcomes in such a context would be comparable to other studies of RtL conducted elsewhere. Using a long-term action research design, this mixed methods inquiry into academic literacy development worked with students’ writing portfolios collected throughout the RtL intervention. A linguistic biographical questionnaire was used to gather student-specific data. Student work was assessed, codified and given numerical literacy scores which allowed for descriptive and more advanced statistical data analysis. A number of cases were closely analysed to illustrate the nature of the intervention and students’ levels of literacy pre and post intervention. Triangulation of the various kinds of data revealed how general data patterns emerging from the small-scale statistical analysis relate to contextual features specific to local social and educational conditions. The findings of this study showed that students’ academic literacy skills improved over the duration of the RtL intervention. The greatest area of improvement across all students (regardless of school context) was evidenced in more advanced schematic structuring of both the narrative and academic essay genres. From a cross-sectional (across schools) perspective, the greatest overall improvement in written literacy skills was among the weaker cohort of students from the peri-urban township school. The phenomenon of weaker students making greater overall gains was also evidenced from a time series (within school) perspective. This encouraging finding indicates a possible convergence (or ‘catch-up’) effect, for students previously categorised as academically weak, regardless of school context, meaning that the documented convergence effects also seemed to occur irrespective of students’ socioeconomic circumstances. Furthermore, the findings of this study, with regards to the efficacy of RtL, are comparable to findings from other studies conducted globally, those in Australian studies, in particular.

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2014

Dr Allen Asiimwe

Dr Allen Asiimwe

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2012
Graduation date: December 2014
Department: African Languages
Supervisor: Prof Marianna Visser
Dissertation tittle: Definiteness and specificity in Runyankore-Rukiga

Abstract: This study investigates the manifestations of the universal categories of (in) definiteness and (non-)specificity in the Runyankore-Rukiga determiner phrase by means of discourse-pragmatic and morpho-syntactic considerations. Runyankore-Rukiga, like all other Bantu languages, exhibits no (in) definite articles, but there are various ways the language employs to encode the definiteness. Lyons’s (1999) semantic principles of definiteness and his definition of specificity are adopted for the study, as well as the Minimalist and Cartographic approaches to syntax. The data come from authentic written materials, recorded spoken discourse and elicitation (backed up by other native speakers’ grammaticality judgement). The study considers modified and unmodified (bare) nouns. Bare nouns are generally (save for those with inherent unique semantic features) ambiguous between (in) definite and (non-) specific readings Thus, an appropriate reading is contingent on a correct discourse-pragmatic setting. Nominal modifiers are categorized into three groups (Visser, 2008). Those which contribute unambiguously to the definiteness interpretation of head nouns, e.g., demonstratives, the functional elements -a and nya-, some quantifiers and the absolute pronoun. The second category includes nominal modifiers which have neutral semantic features of (in) definiteness and (non-)specificity, namely, adjectives, numerals, possessives as well as nominal and clausal relatives. Thirdly, nominal modifiers occur which are assumed to possess an inherent semantic feature of indefiniteness, for example, some quantifiers and the lexicalized element haine. The study investigates the inferences associated with the Initial Vowel (IV) when it occurs optionally in the inflectional morphology of nominal modifiers with the neutral feature of (in)definiteness and (non-)specificity in prenominal, and postnominal positions, as well as in positions when the head of the phrase is a pro category. The intricate relation of the core morpheme of the demonstrative and the IV is investigated. The study concludes that the initial vowel occurring optionally in the inflectional morphology of neutral nominal modifiers and with bare object nouns following a negative verb evolved from the core demonstrative morpheme and exhibits anaphoric features in the absence of a full lexical head as well as functioning as a functional category determiner, expressing specificity, contrastive focus and sometimes emphasis features. Indefinite nominal modifiers contribute to indefiniteness reading of their head nouns although the indefinite feature is not inherent in them, in that they can appear in definite contexts as well. Indefinite quantifiers too allow the IV in their inflectional morphology as a determiner that mainly encodes contrastive focus or emphasis. The results from the study offer explanations of key areas of syntax, morphology and semantics relating to the Determiner phrase system from a perspective of no (in) definite articles, which constitutes a significantly major contribution to Bantu linguistic research.

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Dr Japhet Bakuwa

Dr Japhet Bakuwa

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: March 2015
Department: Centre for research on science and technology (CREST)
Supervisor: Prof Johann Mouton
Dissertation title: Public understanding of global climate change in Malawi: An investigation of factors influencing perceptions, attitudes and belief about global climate change

Abstract: This study is informed by both the deficit/positivist and contextual/critical models for doing public understanding of science (PUS) research and seeks to investigate factors that influence the perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards climate change in Malawi. Previous research on the public understanding of climate change conducted in the United States of America (USA) and Europe suggest that people‘s beliefs, perceptions and attitudes do influence support for both voluntary and policy initiatives to address climate change and adaption to it. However, it is equally important to understand the factors that influence public perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards climate change. An investigation into these factors provides an understanding and appreciation of the contextual issues related to the public assimilation and renegotiation of climate change information, as well as the support or rejection of initiatives aimed at addressing climate change. Sub-Saharan African countries are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change because their national economies and populations depend on rain-fed agriculture. Malawi is no exception. The majority of the Malawian population (at least 85%) live in rural areas and depend on subsistence, rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood, and are therefore more vulnerable to climate change. Furthermore, Malawi‘s economy is agro-based (agriculture comprises about 36% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 85% of exports earnings and 84% of total employment). On the basis of these facts, I hypothesised that the perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of Malawians towards climate change are influenced by a wide range of factors, including the impact of climate change on livelihoods. More specifically, I proposed that more rural inhabitants than urban residents were likely to agree that their livelihood has been negatively affected by climate change, and would also be more willing to take voluntary action to address climate change. Upon performing chi-square analyses of the responses, the results indicate that: (i) significantly more rural (91%) than urban inhabitants (51%) agree that their livelihood has been negatively affected by climate change, and (ii) significant higher proportions of the rural population have at some point taken voluntary action to address climate change Multinomial logistic regression models predicted the perceptions, beliefs and attitudes of Malawians towards climate change. The results show that location is the only predictor of whether an individual would agree that his/her livelihood has been negatively affected by climate change or not. Rural inhabitants are 6.5 times more likely than urban residents to agree that their livelihood has been negatively affected by climate change. Location is also a predictor of the belief that climate change and its impact is the will of God; the belief that the solution to climate change rests with God; and how certain or uncertain a person is regarding the effects of climate change. Binary logistic regression results show that location is also the strongest predictor of whether an individual would take a voluntary action to address climate change or not. Rural inhabitants are 2.3 times more likely than urban residents to take voluntary action to address climate change. Besides place of residence, other predictors of perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards climate change are: level of education (predictor of three outcome variables, namely: how certain or uncertain a person is about the causes of climate change; whether an individual believes that climate change and its impact is the will of God or not; and whether an individual believes that the solution to the problem of climate change rests with God or not); environmental groups and institutions of learning as sources of information about climate change (predictors of how certain or uncertain a person is about the causes of climate change, and whether a person believes that climate change and its impact is the will of God or not, respectively); and the trustworthiness of village headmen as a source of information about climate change (predictor of whether an individual will believe that climate change and its impact is the will of God or not; and whether an individual will take personal initiative to address climate change). These findings affirm the hypothesis that the impact of climate change on livelihoods of Malawians living in rural locations influences their perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards climate change. Additionally, the findings suggest that public education about climate change remains key to promoting understanding of climate change. The Government of Malawi and non-governmental organisations have to take up this challenge of educating the Malawian public about climate change, particularly those living in rural locations. However, public education of climate change in Malawi demands that we also take into account the contextual factors that influence Malawians‘ perceptions, beliefs and attitudes towards climate change. For future research, the study suggests that more research in Sub-Saharan Africa is warranted to unearth the contextual factors that influence the public understanding of climate change.

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Dr Phenyo Butale

Dr Phenyo Butale

Home country: Botswana

PANGeA Partner: University of Botswana
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: March 2015
Department: English
Supervisor: Dr Tina Steiner
Co-Supervisor: Prof Annie Gagiano
Dissertation title: Discourses of poverty in literature: Assessing representations of indigence in post-colonial texts from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe

Abstract: This thesis undertakes a comparative reading of post-colonial literature written in English in Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe to bring into focus the similarities and differences between fictional representations of poverty in these three countries. The thesis explores the unique way in which literature may contribute to the better understanding of poverty, a field that has hitherto been largely dominated by scholarship that relies on quantitative analysis as opposed to qualitative approaches. The thesis seeks to use examples from selected texts to illustrate that (as many social scientists have argued before) literature provides insights into the ‘lived realities’ of the poor and that with its vividly imagined specificities it illuminates the broad generalisations about poverty established in other (data-gathering) disciplines. Selected texts from the three countries destabilise the usual categories of gender, race and class which are often utilised in quantitative studies of poverty and by so doing show that experiences of poverty cut across and intersect all of these spheres and the experiences differ from one person to another regardless of which category they may fall within. The three main chapters focus primarily on local indigence as depicted by texts from the three countries. The selection of texts in the chapters follows a thematic approach and texts are discussed by means of selective focus on the ways in which they address the theme of poverty. Using three main theorists – Maria Pia Lara, Njabulo Ndebele and Amartya Sen – the thesis focuses centrally on how writers use varying literary devices and techniques to provide moving depictions of poverty that show rather than tell the reader of the unique experiences that different characters and different communities have of deprivation and shortage of basic needs.

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Dr Amanda de Beer

Dr Amanda de Beer

Home country: South Africa

PANGeA partner: Stellenbosch University
Year of enrolment: 2012
Graduation date: March 2015
Department: Modern Foreign Languages (German)
Supervisor: Dr Rolf Annas
Dissertation title: Fremde Schreiben: Zu Ilija Trojanows Roman Der Weltensammler (2006)


“Adventure and colonial Africa in German youth literature”

Abstract: This dissertation investigates the different forms of otherness and alterity (“Fremde”) in Bulgarian born German author, Ilija Trojanow’s novel, Der Weltensammler (2006). In this novel, alterity, as portrayed by Trojanow, is read as threatening and uncanny (“unheimlich”), on the one hand, and fascinating on the other. The novel, Der Weltensammler, translated by William Hobson and published under the title The Collector of Worlds (2008), narrates the life of the historical figure Sir Richard Francis Burton. Burton, a colonist, traveller and explorer, undertakes a journey across continents: British-India, Arabia and East Africa. As one of the first Europeans to do so, Burton - disguised and converted to Islam - undertakes a pilgrimage to Mecca. Like the title of the novel suggests, Burton is a contradictory man who not only collects worlds, but also obsessively adopts the cultures of the colonised. However, this British officer’s bizarre lifestyle and unusual ability to adapt to and adopt the foreign world raises certain questions regarding the relationship between coloniser and colonised. More importantly, he grapples with the portrayal of otherness. Throughout the novel both the narrator and a writer (the Lahiya) try to put together the pieces of Burton’s life. As the narrator warns in the preface of his novel, Burton remains an enigma. His antipodes are another historical figure, the former slave Sidi Mubarak Bombay and his servant Naukaram. Unlike in Burton’s and Stanley’s travel diaries where Bombay takes a marginalised position, he comes to the fore in Der Weltensammler. Though Burton appears to become part of the foreign world, it is the change of narrative perspectives between coloniser and colonised that puts their relation into question, thereby dissolving binary opposites. This thesis begins with a general discussion of the novel and its significance within German post-colonial literature. The study moves on to a discussion of the discourses surrounding the concept of alterity, identifying one key form of alterity, namely mimicry, a term borrowed from the theorist Homi K. Bhabha. The greater part of the thesis is devoted to the analysis of the novel. The first part deals with the analysis of alterity and otherness by focussing attention on the portrayal of otherness as threatening and fascinating, the concept of mimicry, and finally, Burton’s transformation. The second part investigates the process of re-writing that takes place and the manner in which alterity is portrayed in the novel paying particular attention to the relation between author, writer and narrator. Following this analysis of alterity and its rewriting, this thesis moves to the more general question of how Ilija Trojanow’s novel, Der Weltensammler, functions as a refutation (Gegenschrift/Kampfabsage) of Samuel Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Relying on the words of Stephen Slemon, this study finally questions whether this novel can be read as another “scramble for post-colonialism”. Based on the theoretical framework developed on the concept of culture by Homi K. Bhabha on the one hand and the insights on cultures by Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuscinski on the other, this study demonstrates how it is through the processes of revision and re-writing of literary borrowings, e.g. Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1899), that the concept of alterity is redefined and the novel in itself gains a post-colonial voice. Furthermore, this thesis shows how otherness is deconstructed to such an extent that it is not difference that is highlighted, but instead a literary model for the co-existence of cultures.

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Dr George Jawali

Dr George Jawali

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2012
Graduation date: March 2015
Department: History
Supervisor: Prof Sandra Swart
Dissertation title: A history of contestation over natural resources in the Lower Tchiri Valley in Malawi, c.1850-1960

Abstract: This study explores hunting in the Lower Tchiri Valley as an arena in which African and white hunting interests as well as conservation policies precipitated insurgence and accommodation, collaboration and conflict. Precolonial Magololo hunters, having supplanted Mang’anja hunting as a result of the superiority of their hunting technology by 1861, found themselves in competition with white sport hunters over game animals. Unequal power relations between the Magololo hunters and the white hunters, who formed part of the colonial administration in Nyasaland from the 1890s, saw the introduction of game laws that led to wild animals and their sanctuaries becoming contested terrains. Colonial officials and some whites enjoyed privileges in hunting game whose declining populations were blamed on Africans in general and the Magololo in particular. Some Africans and certain whites devised hunting strategies that brought them into conflict with the colonial state. In the Lower Tchiri Valley, the tsetse-game controversy led to game being slaughtered on an unprecedented scale in the Elephant Marsh region. The Game Ordinance of 1926, intended to prevent such wanton destruction, was protested by settlers, planters, white hunters and even missionaries who claimed to represent the interests of the “natives”. The colonial state and the Colonial Office in London quelled the protests, proclaiming Lengwe and Tangadzi as game reserves. As the state was consolidating the game preservation economy and establishing the game reserves from the 1930s to 1960, opposition continued. The implementation of international conservation trends locally, particularly after 1945, served to entrench illicit hunting and the position among some white settlers that game should be exterminated as it was incompatible with agricultural “progress.” The Nyasaland Game Department increased its efforts to ensure that killing game for crop protection was confined to Game Guards, one of whom, an African named Biton Balandow, became a local “hero”. Despite this, by 1960 game populations in the Lower Tchiri Valley reserves were still declining. Together with oral testimonies collected in the communities neighbouring the reserves (or former hunting grounds), the fresh perspectives rendered in this thesis derived from a systematic use of reports, original research papers, colonial administrative correspondence and autobiographical works of big-game hunters-turned preservationists. Specific material for the Lower Tchiri Valley hunting economies from these primary sources allowed this thesis to transcend the often generalised analyses necessitated by macrooverviews in Malawian historiography, and offer a more nuanced study of local contestations between state and subject, between competing individuals, between groups, races and generations and, enduringly, between human and animal.

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Dr Richard Kagolobya

Dr Richard Kagolobya

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2012
Graduation date: December 2014
Department: Drama
Supervisor: Prof Edwin Hees
Dissertation title: Symbolic interaction and intercultural theatre performance dynamics in Uganda : the case of Makerere Universitys Intercultural Theatre Collaborations

Abstract: This dissertation investigates and examines the dynamics of intercultural theatre practice. Existing scholarship on interculturalism in theatre praxis regards intercultural theatre as a site for bridging cultures and cross-cultural performance traditions, and for investigating the performance of power between the collaborating parties, learning, cultural imperialism, cultural translation and hybridity, among other features. However, much of the existing literature does not offer a historical perspective allowing one to understand the dynamics of contemporary North-South collaborations. Moreover, most studies do not adequately weave the experiences of the participants in such collaborations into their analyses. This study contributes to filling that research gap. This research specifically seeks to investigate and examine the dynamics of intercultural theatre collaborations in Uganda, taking Makerere University‘s Department of Performing Arts and Film‘s intercultural theatre activities in recent years as case studies. The inquiry was mainly driven by the impetus to explore the North-South intercultural theatre dynamics and to examine the socio-cultural, socio-political, socio-economic features and other notions that were manifested in these intercultural theatre collaborations and performances. In order to pursue the above line of inquiry I used a multiple case study design by examining three cases: the Stanford-Makerere, New York-Makerere and the Norwegian College of Dance-Makerere collaborations. The multi-case study model was reinforced by the use of personal interviews, direct observation, focus group discussions, document analysis and emails of inquiry in order to solicit the views of individuals who had participated in the above collaborations. Theoretically, the study is hinged on a multiplicity of concepts and discourses: symbolic interaction, intercultural communication, theatre studies, postcolonial studies, international education and the discourse on globalisation. In the analysis of the different cases it was discovered that the issue of economic inequality in the contribution towards the funding of the collaborations, among the different modes of power performativity manifested in the collaboration processes, sometimes leads to an imbalance in the decision-making process. Consequently, the power imbalance contributes to the North-South intercultural theatre collaborations‘ unending crisis of identification with imperialism. The study further shows that there are cultural, linguistic, pedagogical, structural and socio-psychological aspects of difference that are negotiated during the course of the collaborations. It was found that the process of navigating the socio-cultural differences provides the participants with an experiential learning environment of living with/within and appreciating cultural differences, thus providing a bridge across the socio-cultural divide. The cultural bridge in theatrical terms, however, leads to the generation of theatrical hybridity and fusion, which again brings into play the debate on intercultural performance authenticity/inauthenticity in theatre discourse. Also, based on the view that intercultural theatre collaborations are microcosms of multifaceted global intercultural interactions, it was seen that the socio-cultural differences that are negotiated through the intercultural theatre collaborations can give one a microcosmic platform for critiquing the grand concept of the ―global village‖ and the associated notion of ―world cultural homogenisation‖. Since this study uses a novel multidisciplinary approach in the analysis of intercultural theatre phenomena, I believe it will contribute to critical theatre studies in Uganda and elsewhere. The findings will also hopefully contribute towards the assessment of intercultural theatre collaborations at Makerere University in order to improve them. The study will also advance the view that intercultural theatre‘s aesthetic and experiential processes can help in interpreting and understanding our respective multicultural environments. Broadly, it will contribute to the discourse on intercultural communication, performance and cultural studies.

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DR ALMAS MAZIGO

DR ALMAS MAZIGO

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2012
Graduation date: March 2015
Department: Philosophy (Applied ethics)
Supervisor: Prof Johan Hattingh
Dissertation title: Towards an alternative development ethic for the fishing sector of Ukerewe District, Tanzania

Abstract: This study was prompted by the increasing vulnerability and impoverishment of local fishing folk in Ukerewe District in Tanzania in the midst of the potential of the fishing sector to generate wealth and the many capable actors and stakeholders who can provide essential services and opportunities that can help the fishing folk to overcome their challenges and improve their lot in generating wealth. Taking the view that some forms of poverty have their roots in the moral system of the people, institutions and organisations involved, and considering the call made by Tanzania’s Second National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction to key actors and stakeholders to design and implement interventions that would improve the chances of poor actors to generate wealth, this study aimed to discover what would motivate capable actors and stakeholders in the fishing sector of Ukerewe District to do so. The study asked whether there are ethical values and principles that have the potential to inspire and guide capable actors and stakeholders to reconsider the fate of constrained local actors, and to make a responsible commitment to address their constraining conditions, as well as to determine how these ethical ideas, if any, can be explicated, formulated and implemented. Empirical research was undertaken in Ukerewe District from October 2012 to March 2013. It followed an applied ethics case study methodology, combined with focus groups, life narratives and in-depth individual interviews. Three hundred and ten local actors and stakeholders in the fishing sector of Ukerewe were engaged in progressive stages of critical self-reflection and dialogue within and between particular stakeholder groups. These 310 participants reflected and deliberated on what constituted the poverty of local actors, what it would take to overcome that poverty and what would motivate capable actors and stakeholders to combat that poverty. The collected evidence led to the establishment of the following: First, the fishing sector offers adequate opportunities to invest in and work to generate income and goods to improve socio-economic conditions. Second, local fishing folk fall into poverty because they are constrained from generating wealth. Third, the local fishing folk could improve their capacities to generate wealth and overcome their poverty through expanded opportunities to acquire and use the relevant competence, efficient productive forces and fisheries infrastructure, formal financial credit and insurance services. Fourth, fulfilling institutional and professional obligations, contributing to possible good consequences and preventing possible bad consequences in the life of the local fishing folk, the fishing sector, their own organisations and society, and showing care for, respect to and solidarity with local fishing folk would motivate most capable actors and stakeholders to undertake pro-poor actions in the fisheries sections. Based on what the respondents revealed to value and what they wanted to achieve in their fishing sector, an alternative development ethic, namely the Sufficient Capabilities and Wealth Ethic (SUCAWE), was constructed. The SUCAWE offers insightful and empowering moral resources for self-management and for the management of multiple actors and stakeholders in wealth creation and the combating of poverty.

DR MEDADI SSENTANDA

DR MEDADI SSENTANDA

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2012
Graduation date: December 2014
Department: General Linguistics
Supervisor: Dr Kate Huddlestone
Co-Supervisor: Dr Frenette Southwood
Dissertation title: Mother tongue education and transition to English medium education in Uganda: Teachers perspectives and practices versus language policy and curriculum

Abstract: In this dissertation I report on an ethnographic survey study undertaken on bi-/multilingual education in ten primary schools in Uganda. The primary aim of this study was to explore how teachers understand and manage the process of transitioning from mother tongue (MT) education to English as a language of learning and teaching (LoLT). In this study I used a multi-method approach involving questionnaires, classroom observations, follow-up interviews and note taking. Data was analysed using a theme-based triangulation approach, one in which insights gleaned from different sources are checked against each other, so as to build a fuller, richer and more accurate account of the phenomenon under study. This data was gathered firstly from teachers and classes in the first three years of formal schooling (P1 to P3) in order to understand the nature of multilingualism in the initial years of primary schooling and how teachers use MT instruction in preparation for transition to English-medium education that occurs at the end of these three years. Secondly, data from P4 and P5 classes and teachers was gathered so as to examine the manner in which teachers handle transition from MT instruction in P4 and then shift into the use of English as LoLT in P5. The study has identified discrepancies between de jure and de facto language policy that exist at different levels: within schools, between government and private schools in implementing the language-in-education policy, and, ultimately, between the assumptions teachers have of the linguistic diversity of learners and the actual linguistic repertoires possessed by the learners upon school entry. Moreover, the study has revealed that it is unrealistic to expect that transfer of skills from MT to English can take place after only three years of teaching English and MT as subjects and using MT as LoLT. Against such a backdrop, teachers operate under circumstances that are not supportive of effective policy implementation. In addition, there is a big gap between teacher training and the demands placed on teachers in the classroom in terms of language practices. Moreover, teachers have mixed feelings about MT education, and some are unreservedly negative about it. Teachers’ indifference to MT education is partly caused by the fact that MTs are not examined at the end of primary school and that all examination papers are set in English. Furthermore, it has emerged that Uganda’s pre-primary education system complicates the successful implementation of the language-in-education policy, as it is not monitored by the government, is not compulsory nor available to all Ugandan children, and universally is offered only in English. The findings of this study inform helpful recommendations pertaining to the language-ineducation policy and the education system of Uganda. Firstly, there is a need to compile countrywide community and/or school linguistic profiles so as to come up with a wellinformed and practical language policy. Secondly, current language-in-education policy ought to be decentralised as there are urban schools which are not multilingual (as is assumed by the government) and thus are able to implement MT education. Thirdly, the MT education programme of Uganda ought to be changed from an early-exit to a late-exit model in order to afford a longer time for developing proficiency in English before English becomes the LoLT. Fourthly, government ought to make pre-primary schooling compulsory, and MT should be the LoLT at this level so that all Ugandan children have an opportunity to learn through their MTs. Finally, if the use of MT, both as a subject and as a LoLT, is to be enforced in schools, the language of examination and/or the examination of MTs will have to be reconsidered. In summary, several reasons have been identified for the mentioned discrepancies between de jure and de facto language-in-education policy in Uganda. This policy was implemented in an attempt to improve the low literacy levels of Ugandan learners. It therefore appears as if the policy and its implementation will need revision before this achievable aim can be realised as there is great difficulty on the teachers’ side not only in the understanding but also in managing the process of transitioning from MT education to English as LoLT.

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Dr Salome Teuteberg

Dr Salome Teuteberg

Home country: South Africa

PANGeA partner: Stellenbosch University
Year of enrolment: 2012
Graduation date: March 2015
Department: Political Science
Supervisor: Prof Pierre du Toit
Dissertation title: The endurance of Lebanese consociational democracy

Abstract: The small Middle Eastern country of Lebanon was once recognised as the exemplar of power-sharing democracy, upholding a system that promoted peace and coexistence between Christians and Muslims. Power was divided proportionally amongst confessional groups, granting each sect power according to their demographic proportion. This division of power was aimed at promoting national unity, but changes in the Lebanese demography made the division undemocratic, and the constitution no longer accurately represented Lebanese society. The 1926 constitution, supplemented by the National Pact in 1943, which had upheld this division of power, baulked under the pressure of a 15-year civil war, to the surprise of many scholars who had praised the Lebanese system. While many place the blame on the outside influences, it has been determined that the problem lay within the system. The static characteristic of the system did not sufficiently provide for changing demographics, or a change in interest groups. The problem lay in the fixed nature of the proportionality of the consociational system. The prolonged civil war, sometimes referred to as a proxy war between Israel and Syria, came to an end with the signing of the Taif Accord in 1990. Though none were satisfied with its provision, the Accord brought an end to the escalating violence. The Accord paved the way for the rebuilding of state institutions, enabling parliamentary elections in 1992 and 1996; general municipal elections in 1998; the peaceful transfer of power between presidents; as well as the reconstruction of the Lebanese economy. The main objective of this study of Lebanon is to determine whether the amended Lebanese constitution of 1990 adheres to the principles provided in the theoretical framework regarding constitutional endurance. This study is in the form of a qualitative case study. It aims to describe, at length, and to form an in-depth understanding of the actors and events leading up to the Taif Accord, as well as the formation and implementation thereof. The research questions include: What factors relating to flexibility, specificity and inclusion contributed to the breakdown of the 1943 National Pact?; What steps were taken leading to the Taif Accord?; and Have the changes made in the Lebanese constitution by means of the 1990 Taif Accord facilitated the endurance of the constitution? The study aims to contribute through its application of the theoretical framework to a particular case study, namely that of Lebanon. By 'testing' this theoretical framework, this study also provides an in-depth analysis of the happenings in Lebanon over the past 80 years. It remains in question whether the Taif Accord‟s amendments to the constitution have sufficiently provided for the resilience of thereof. Twenty years of relative peace have not convinced Lebanese citizens of the legitimacy and efficacy of the Accord. While the over-centralisation of power within the system was curbed by shifting power away from the president to a cabinet equally divided between Christian and Muslims, the Accord failed to effectively deal with the preset nature of the proportionality within the system. 20 years of relative peace may be enough to ensure the endurance of the constitution, but regional factors as well as the presence of radicalised groups play an important role in destabilising the fragile balance within the country. Should the Lebanese state continue to be inclusive and flexible in the wake of a constantly changing environment, it may endure. However, the tumultuous nature of the region in which Lebanon finds itself may eventually provide external shocks that the Lebanese system fails to weather. The hope is that the system builds on sound, systemic foundations in order to be able to endure regional conflict.

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2013

Dr Sidney Berman

Dr Sidney Berman

Home country: Botswana

PANGeA partner: University of Botswana
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: April 2014
Department: Ancient Studies
Supervisor: Prof CHJ van der merwe
Co-Supervisor: Prof ER Wendland
Dissertation title: Analysing the frames of a bible: The case of the Setswana translations of the book of Ruth

Abstract: This study investigates how the contextual frames of reference (CFRs) of the three extant Setswana Bibles – Moffat, Wookey and BSSA (Bible Society of South Africa) – could have impacted on their renderings of the book of Ruth. The fact that the Bibles were translated within contexts that differed from those of the Hebrew text of Ruth gives rise to the assumption that some of such contexts or frames could have had problematic influences on decision making during translation. Differing frames were assumed to have led to differences (i.e., translation shifts) between the translations and the Hebrew text. Such frames were hypothesised to have emanated from socio-cultural, textual, communication-situational and organisational circumstances pertaining to the making of the Hebrew text and the translations. Since contextual frames of various kinds presumably converged on the Setswana target texts (TTs), this study proposes an integrated multidisciplinary approach to frame analysis, namely, the cognitive CFR model. The framework, which is embedded in biblical interpretation, merges insights from other disciplines including translation studies, cognitive semantics and cultural studies. The translators‟ decisions are evaluated using the heuristic perspective of “an exegetically justifiable rendering.” The study identified indeed countless shifts in the three Setswana translations which resulted from hypothetical socio-cultural, organisational, communicational and textual factors. Moffat‟s shifts revealed a predomination of organisational CFRs throughout the book of Ruth. The organisational CFR also stood out occasionally for Wookey as well. BSSA did not show a predomination of any class of CFRs but manifested the least problematic CFRs. As far as the negative influences of CFRs were concerned, BSSA was the least affected, followed by Wookey and lastly Moffat. The study reveals that it could sometimes be simple, but other times also be difficult or impossible, depending on the pertinent CFR, to provide an exegetically justifiable rendering of an ST unit. Yet, it can be concluded from this study that an awareness of CFRs during translation or analysis of translations can contribute towards the improvement of existing translations or the reduction of problematic shifts in new Bible translation projects.

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Dr Danson Kahyana

Dr Danson Kahyana

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: April 2014
Department: English
Supervisor: Prof Tina Steiner
Co-Supervisor: Lynda Spencer
Dissertation title: Negotiating (trans)national identities in Ugandan literature

Abstract: This thesis examines how selected Ugandan literary texts portray constructions and negotiations of national identities as they intersect with overlapping and cross-cutting identities like race, ethnicity, gender, religious denomination, and political affiliation. The word “negotiations” is central to the close reading of selected focal texts I offer in this thesis for it implies that there are times when a tension may arise between national identity and one or more of these other identities (for instance when races or ethnic groups are imagined outside the nation as foreigners) or between one national identity (say Ugandan) and other national identities (say British) for those characters who occupy more than one national space and whose understanding of home therefore includes a here (say Britain) and a there (say Uganda). The study therefore examines the portrayal of how various borders (internal and external, sociocultural and geopolitical) are navigated in particular literary texts in order to construct, reconstruct, and perform (trans)national identity. The concept of the border is crucial to this study because any imagining of community is done against a backdrop of similarities (what the “us” share in common) and differences (what makes the “them” distinct from “us”). Drawing from various theorists of nationalism, postcolonialism, transnationalism and gender, I explore the representation of key events in Uganda’s history (for instance colonialism, decolonization, expulsion, and civil war) and investigate how selected writers narrate/sing these events in their constructions of Ugandan (trans)national identities. My analysis is guided by insights drawn from the work of the Russian literary theorist, Mikhail Bakhtin, particularly his concepts of dialogism and heteroglossia. His proposition that the novel is a site for the dialogic interaction of multiple languages (say of authorities, generations and social groups) and of speeches (say of narrators, characters and authors) each espousing a particular worldview or ideology enables me to create a correlation between literary texts and the nation (which contains a multiplicity of identities like races, ethnic groups, genders, religious denominations and political affiliations with each having its own interests and ‘language’), and to argue that Ugandan national identity is constituted by the existence of these very identities that overlap with it. By paying attention to the way selected literary texts portray how these disparate identities dialogue with the larger national community in different situations and how the national community in turn dialogues with other nations through cultural exchanges, migration, exile and diaspora, this study aims at unravelling the dynamics involved in the negotiation of (trans)national identities both within the nation and outside it.

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Dr Ezekiel Kimani Kaigai

Dr Ezekiel Kimani Kaigai

Home country: Kenya

PANGeA partner: University of Nairobi
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: April 2014
Department: English
Supervisor: Prof Tina Steiner
Co-Supervisor: Dr Tom Odhiambo
Dissertation title: Encountering strange lands: Migrant texture in Abdulrazak Gurnah’s fiction

Abstract: This study engages with the complete novelistic oeuvre of the Zanzibari-born author Abdulrazak Gurnah, whose fiction is dedicated to the theme of migration. With each novel, however, Gurnah deploys innovative stylistic features as an analytic frame to engage with his signature topic. From his first novel to his eighth, Gurnah offers new insights into relocation and raises new questions about what it means to be a migrant or a stranger in inhospitable circumstances and how such conditions call for a negotiation of hospitable space. What gives each of his works a distinct aesthetic appeal is the artistic resourcefulness and versatility with which he frames his narratives, in order to situate them within their historical contexts. This allows him to interrogate the motives behind his characters’ actions (or behind their inaction). Gurnah, therefore, employs a variety of narrative perspectives that not only challenge the reader in the task of interpreting his complex works, but which also allow for the pleasure of carrying out this task. In its exploration of migrant subjectivities and their multiple and varied negotiations to create enabling spaces, this thesis shows how Gurnah’s fiction deploys various artistic strategies as possible ways of thinking about individual identity and social relations with others. In short, this thesis explores how Gurnah’s texts become discursive tools for understanding the complexity of migrancy and cultural exchanges along the Swahili coast, in Zanzibar, in the Indian Ocean, and in the UK.

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Dr Ken Lipenga

Dr Ken Lipenga

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: April 2014
Department: English
Supervisor: Prof Grace Musila
Co-Supervisor: Prof Annie Gagiano
Dissertation title: Narrative enablement: Constructions of disability in contemporary African imaginaries

Abstract: This thesis examines depictions of disability in selected African films, novels and memoirs. Central to the thesis is the concept of narrative enablement, which is discussed as a property that texts have for enabling the recognition of disability by the reader or viewer. In the thesis, I investigate the ways in which narrative enablement manifests in the texts. The motivation for the study comes from the recognition of several trends in current literary disability studies. Firstly, the study attempts to expand the theoretical base of current literary disability studies, which consists of ideas formed from a narrow epistemic archive. Similarly, the study also recognises that scholarship in the field mostly relies on a limited canon of texts, almost wholly drawn from the Western world. This study therefore allows a glimpse at an under-acknowledged archive of disability representation, which is then used to suggest the possibility of alternative ways of understanding disablement on the African continent and globally. The first chapter is meant as an entry point into some of the complex lives depicted in the thesis. In this chapter, I explore the intersection that the texts draw between disability and masculinity, illustrating the way this intersection evokes questions about how we understand the relationship between the two concepts. In the second chapter, I examine the way socio-political violence on the continent is represented as a cause of both disablement and disenablement. This chapter is an exploration of how disability is enmeshed with other social realities in people’s lives. The term disenablement is employed in order to capture the presentation of disablement amidst various forms of violent oppression. As it is portrayed in the majority of the texts studied in the thesis, disablement is a factor of social attitudes. My third chapter examines how these texts create dis/ability zones, areas where the reader/viewer witnesses the fluidity of socially constructed disablement in particular societies. As it is portrayed in the texts, and discussed in the thesis, this zone is a space where disabled characters encounter the ableist world. It is a space that allows the destabilization of entrenched notions about disability, and consequent recognition of disabled characters. The most explicit manifestation of narrative enablement occurs through creative intervention, which is the focus in the fourth chapter. In this chapter, I examine the role of various forms of creativity as they are enacted by the characters, arguing that they are manifestations of the characters making use of narrative enablement. In the texts, the disabled characters use unique modes of storytelling – not exclusively verbal – to narrate their story, but also to assert their belonging to particular familial, cultural, as well as national worlds.

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Dr Charl Swart

Dr Evance Mwathunga

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: April 2014
Department: Geography and Environmental Studies
Supervisor: Prof Ronnie Donaldson
Dissertation title: Contesting space in urban Malawi: A lefebvrian analysis

Abstract: Cities in Malawi continue to be sites and spaces of resistance, struggle and contest over urban spaces. Since the introduction of colonial modernist planning with its adherence to segregation through functional zoning, homogenisation, and fragmentation of urban areas, squatting and land invasions on urban land have remained one of the widespread struggles for space in urban Malawi. Continued occurrence of squatting, land invasions, and encroachments on urban land reflect the inability of urban planning and its attendant land policies to provide land and housing to the majority of urban dwellers mainly the middle income as well as the marginalised urban poor. Over the years, government efforts have not decisively addressed the issue of land contestations in urban areas in spite of numerous reports of increasing cases of conflicts and competing claims over urban land in Malawi including land dispossessions, conflicts over land uses in urban and peri-urban areas and most significantly contestations manifested in squatting and land invasions on state land leading to growth of spontaneous settlements. In urban areas, efforts to address these competitions have included relocation; titling programmes, sites-and-services schemes, land reform programmes, and forced evictions, but struggles such as squatting and land invasions persist. In urban Malawi, the question is: why is urban planning, as it is conceived and acted upon (i.e. as mode of thought and spatial practice), a creator and not a mediator of urban land conflicts? The study aimed to answer this question, by using Lefebvre’s conceptual triad of social production of space, to gain an in-depth understanding of how the contradictions between people’s perceptions and daily life practices in relation to space, on one hand, and planner’s conceptions of space as informed by colonial, post-colonial, and neoliberal perceptions of space, generate perpetual struggle for urban space in Malawi. The study also investigated spatial strategies and tactics which urban residents employ to shape, produce and defend urban spaces from possible repossession by the state. Finally, the study explored lived experiences and the multiple meanings that urban residents attach to spaces they inhabit and these are used to contest imposition of space by state authorities while at the same time to produce their own spaces. Mixed method approaches were used to gather geodata, quantitative and qualitative data in the two neighbourhoods of Soche West (Blantyre city) and Area 49 (Lilongwe city) where there are on-going tensions over land between state authorities and urban residents. Primary sources of data included household surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, documentary sources, observations, and electronic and print media. In view of the magnitude of the data, three software were used namely, SPSS, ATLAS.ti, and ArcGIS 9.3TM GIS for quantitative, qualitative, and spatial data respectively. Content and discourse analysis were also used to analyse government documents and newspapers. The research found that although planning thought and practice is dominated by imported modernist conceptions of space, planning authorities in Malawi are unable to impose this space on urban residents. Specifically, the research identified a number of constraints faced by planning authorities ranging from human and technical capacity, corruption, cumbersome and bureaucratic procedures, archaic, rigid and contradictory in laws and policies, complexity of land rights, poor enforcement, political influence and emergence of democracy, incomplete reclassification of rural authority into urban authority and shortage of financing mechanisms. In view of these state incapacities coupled with peoples’s perception of the illegitimacy of the state to control urban land, the study found that ‘dobadobas’ (that is middlemen, conmen and tricksters) have taken over to contest planning practices of the state by employing both violent and non-violent spatial tactics to appropriate, and defend their claim for urban spaces, thereby generating conflicts between the state and users of space. Consistent with our argument regarding representations of spaces and representational spaces, the research found that in both Lilongwe and Blantyre cities, the multiple meanings attached to spaces represent divergent but true lived experiences that involve different core values that may or may not be recognised by those residents who do not share them. Finally, planners, therefore, have to reconcile the contradictions between planners’ visions and the experiences of those who experience the city in their everyday life. By way of recommendation, planners, therefore, have to reconcile the contradictions between planners’ visions and the experiences of those who live in the city. Planners’ emphasis on abstract spaces and their modernist images of order imply that viable alternative place-making processes are not well understood, partially because formal discourse in planning and place-making revolves around largely iterative representations of space and the persuasive capacities of one or another representation. Rather, this researcher recommends continued use of the conceptual triad to enable researchers to become more fully aware of complexity in the human dimensions of space before planning. In the same way, by focusing on the two neighbourhoods, the researcher recommends that planning requires considerable time and effort and that it should priotise the human or the micro scale. Planning ought to bring on board the multiple meanings of space as discussed in the study as these are the multiple dimensions that planning has to grapple with in its quest to organise and produce urban space. Since space is never empty as it always embodies meaning, it is imperative to understand various meanings that people attach to the spaces they inhabit and their attachment to these spaces. In the study the fact that spaces carry multiple meanings encompassing exchange value, use value, emotional value, historical value, and sacred values among others, has been explored. Continued advancement of colonial modernist conceptions of orderliness, segregation, functional zoning and commodification which are constructed largely, by dominant economic and political elites, provokes resistance by groups who defend and seek to reconstruct lived space. Also, in view of the incapacity of the state to impose its conceptions of urban space through spatial practice of planning, urban residents continue to devise their own spatial strategies and tactics violent and nonviolent, to shape their own space. In conclusion, the paper stresses that spaces are not exclusively shaped or moulded by planners and planning practices of the state only, but also by spatial practices of everyday life albeit clandestine and unofficial. In this regard, in Malawi, cities including the post-colonial city of Lilongwe should not be understood as being shaped by planners’ space only but also the changing experiences of the city and everyday life and ambiguities of the users of urban space. Thus plans and documents as conceived spaces should not be understood as the only mechanism to shape and organise urban space but also the changing experiences of the city and everyday life and ambiguities of the users of urban space.

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Dr Charl Swart

Dr Charl Swart

Home country: South Africa

PANGeA partner: Stellenbosch University
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: December 2013
Department: Political science
Supervisor: Prof Pierre du Toit
Dissertation title: Contending interpretations of the rule of law in South Africa

Abstract: The following study examines whether there are contending interpretations of the rule of law present within the South African democracy. The study proposes that the rule of law forms part of the societal understanding of democracy and everyday life. Rule of law is defined in terms of mental models which influence how stakeholders conceive and define institutions. Rule of law is more than a mere institutional guarantee or set of rules — rule of law is understood as a component of a specific culture of understanding. It is shown that conceptions of rule of law have a long history in western society and have been influenced by both liberal and social ideals. Contemporary conceptions of the rule of law are tightly bound with specific notions of liberal democracy. It is hypothesised that there are distinctly identifiable opinions, beliefs and views of the rule of law present in South African democracy, and that these can be systematically described at the hand of a conceptual typology. The conceptual typology developed, identifies two contending interpretations of the rule of law, namely liberal and social rule of law. Liberal rule of law emphasises the status of the individual, moral plurality and the creation and maintenance of a rule-based society of the future. In contrast, social rule of law places emphasis on the status of the community, a single communally defined conception of the moral good and places greater emphasis on righting past injustices. Other publications that address the themes of democracy and the rule of law in South Africa are also examined in order to determine whether there is congruence between the conceptual typology developed in this study and other works. It is found that the conceptual typology is congruent with other works that depict the African National Congress’s conception of democracy, equality and liberty. These congruencies validate and strengthen the conceptual typology developed in this study. The conceptual typology is subsequently applied to a specific court case, the AfriForum v Malema hate speech case. The conceptual typology is found to be sufficiently accurate in analysing contending beliefs associated with the rule of law as expressed in this court case and identifies the African National Congress’s conception of the rule of law as falling under the social rule of law and AfriForum’s conception as aligning to the liberal rule of law. It is concluded that the conceptual typology can be empirically validated at the hand of the selected case. The conceptual typology is therefore validated with other works (conceptually) and with a specific case (empirically). It is concluded that the conceptual typology provides a clear, robust, concise and comprehensive analytical description of values and beliefs associated with the rule of law in South Africa.

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Dr Verdiana Tilumanywa

Dr Verdiana Tilumanywa

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: December 2013
Department: Geography an Environmenatl
Supervisor: Prof Hannes van der Merwe
Co-Supervisor: Prof PS Maro (University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania)
Dissertation title: Land use and livelihood changes in the Mount Rungwe ecosystem, Tanzania

Abstract: The Mount Rungwe ecosystem (MRE) has unique mountain resources. Its biological, hydrological, economic and cultural endowments offer many development opportunities for Tanzania. Since the 1970s, the MRE has experienced change in land use and means of acquiring livelihoods, calling for scientific investigation into the extent, nature, and magnitude of land use changes and their implications for communities’ livelihoods. The aim of the study was to investigate the major changes in land use, to identify the drivers responsible for these changes and to establish the interrelationship between land use change and communities’ livelihoods in order to suggest desirable management options towards improving rural livelihoods and the ecological integrity of MRE. A research design that integrates both qualitative and quantitative approaches was adopted. The fieldwork involved six villages representative of three ecological zones and 384 respondents were interviewed. Information on the past and present land uses, policies, institutions and processes that have influenced and are influencing land use change in the area was obtained through questionnaires, interviews, field observation, and analysis of documents. Satellite imagery of 1973, 1986, 1991 and 2010 were analysed for spatial and temporal statistics on land use and change. The findings indicate that MRE is experiencing land conversions from one land use category to the other especially in villages of the highland zone. Government policies on the use of and access to forests, agricultural land and energy have contributed to the past and current land use changes. Demographic, cultural, economic and natural factors singly or cumulatively have also induced changes in land use in MRE. Most of the changes in land use were noted between 1991 and 2010. At the district level there was a significant decrease in natural vegetation, particularly bushland and woodland, and an increase in cultivated land. Intensification of agricultural land use was more in the villages of the highland zone than in the middleland and lowland zones. Villages of the lowland zone showed a decline of cultivated land area, particularly in the tree crops category, and a constant or declining trend of the natural vegetation coverage – especially grasslands and woodlands. To reduce unplanned farm expansions into areas of natural vegetation, it is recommended that the Ministry of Agriculture should re-emphasise intercropping practices and provide extension services targeting crops such as potatoes and bananas which are now commercialised. This would be a step towards improving agricultural land productivity and addressing local food security. The ministry of Energy and Minerals could finance the ongoing tree planting efforts by local communities and enhance the use of more efficient charcoal stoves so as not only to protect the remaining forests but also as a way of diversifying the communities’ livelihoods.

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Dr Justus Twesigye

Dr Justus Twesigye

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: December 2013
Department: Psychology
Supervisor: Prof Ashraf Kagee
Dissertation title: Explanatory models for the care of outpatients with mood disorders in Uganda: An exploratory study

Abstract: The growing burden of mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries, such as Uganda, necessitates effective interventions to promote mental and social well-being among their populations. Mood disorders contribute more substantially to the global burden of mental illnesses than do other forms of mental disorders. The substantial global burden of mental illnesses is projected to grow more rapidly in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries in the future. Because experiences of and responses to mood disorders are invariably patterned by social and cultural contexts, as argued in the growing field of cross-cultural psychiatry, health care systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries, need to design and deliver culturally relevant interventions that effectively deal with this problem. However, there is generally a paucity of suitable evidence to guide the planning and delivery of such interventions in countries like Uganda. As a response to the apparent knowledge and research gaps regarding experiences of mood disorders and care in Western Uganda, I conducted a qualitative study involving outpatients and their care providers, that is, outpatients’ families, psychiatric health workers, religious healers and traditional healers. Using purposive and snow ball sampling techniques, I selected participants, that is, outpatients as well as psychiatric health workers, outpatients’ families, religious healers and traditional healers involved in the care of the outpatients from the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) and the “Greater Mbarara” region, respectively. The aim of this study is to explore explanatory models that outpatients and care providers in Western Uganda use in responding to mood disorders. I analysed the data collected in the fieldwork using ATLAS.ti 6.2, a computer-software programme designed to support qualitative data analysis. Results from the study indicate that outpatients and their care providers hold complex, diverse and contradictory explanatory models regarding mood disorders and care, which are shaped by their unique social and cultural contexts. Additionally, poor relationships and communication between patients and their care providers, especially between outpatients and psychiatric health workers, are strongly evident; structural barriers significantly hinder the provision and utilisation of care; care is generally inadequate, although it is conceptualised broadly to include biomedical, popular and folk treatments; and outpatients generally exhibit inconsequential (weak) agency in managing distress, which is primarily caused by mood disorders and care-seeking challenges. The results of the current study suggest several implications regarding mental health practice, training, policy and research.

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Dr John Wakota

Dr John Wakota

Home country: Tanzania

PANGeA partner: University of Dar es Salaam
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: April 2014
Department: English
Supervisor: Prof Grace Musila
Co-Supervisor: Prof Shaun Viljoen
Dissertation title: The making and remaking of gender relations in Tanzanian fiction

Abstract: This study examines the fictional representation of gender relations in novels set during five historical periods in Tanzania – the pre-colonial, colonial, nationalism, Ujamaa, and the current neoliberalism period – each of which is marked by important shifts in the nation’s economic contours. Analysing novels written in both Swahili and English, it tracks the shifts in fictionalized household and extra-household gender relations; analyses how the community and the state (colonial and post-colonial) variously map and remap the way male and female characters relate; and interrogates how male and female characters variously accommodate, appropriate, bargain with and/or resist the shifts. The study employs the concepts of power and intersectionality to analyse how selected authors depict gender relations as a product of intersecting identity categories, complex socio-economic shifts and historical processes. Defining labour as productive work done for wage and fulfilment of gender roles, the study argues that labour is one of the major aspects shaping power relations between men and women. It reveals that labour is the major aspect in which the economic shifts have had great impact on gender relations as represented in Tanzanian fiction. As an aspect of power, labour is also the area within which gender relations have continuously been negotiated and contested throughout the fictionalized history. In negotiating or resisting given economic shifts, both male and female characters variously deconstruct and or endorse existing notions of power, labour, and gender relations. The study shows that the cross-fertilization among the periods, the interaction between gender and other identity categories (such as race, religion, class, and age), the synergy between indigenous patriarchy and other patriarchies (such as colonial and capitalist), and, the interactions between global and local dynamics account for the complex and contradictory nature of the shifts in gender relations throughout the nation’s history. Consequently, the study’s major observation is that across the fictionalized history, characters variously seek to maintain and or transform existing gender relations and or discard or restore past gender relations.

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2012

Dr Susan Hall

Dr Susan Hall

Home country: South Africa

PANGeA partner: Stellenbosch University
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: December 2012
Department: Philosophy
Supervisor: Prof Anton van Niekerk
Dissertation title: Harm and enhancement: philosophical and ethical perspectives

Abstract: The distinction between treatment and enhancement is often considered to be a morally significant boundary, which, at the very least, marks the limits of our moral obligations. This conviction holds despite the fact that treatment and enhancement are situated along a continuum of interventions that are directed towards the improvement of human functioning. The distinction between these two sorts of interventions is based upon a notion of normative normality, which suggests that we are morally obligated to provide interventions which are directed toward the achievement of normal functioning, but that no obligation exists to improve functioning beyond this point. This dissertation will subject this position to critique by examining the constitution of normal functioning, and by suggesting that this kind of functioning cannot operate as a normative standard which determines the limits of our moral obligations. The moral desirability which we attribute to the achievement of normal functioning is based upon the independent ethical imperative to promote the possibilities for well-being of moral agents. This motivation, however, equally suggests that we will be obligated to provide certain kinds of enhancement interventions which will be likely to promote the welfare interests of moral agents, when these become available. This argument also implies that the development of enhancement technologies will require us to rethink our ethical conception of harmful non-benefits. We currently think of the non-provision of medical treatment and some environmental enhancements, such as education, as harmful to the extent that state intervention is justified to rectify this. We recognise that such non-provision, and the resultant failure to promote the welfare interests of moral agents, where such promotion is possible, harms persons by putting them in a worse position than they could have been in, with regards to their chances of leading a good life. The new technological possibilities offered by the prospect of genetic enhancement mean that we might soon have a better alternative, in terms of our chances of leading a good life, to the level of functioning that we have thus far been able to achieve. This implies that the non-provision of these enhancements would be harmful to the extent that intervention to bring about this provision would be justified.

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Dr James Ikobwa

Dr James Ikobwa

Home country: Kenya

PANGeA partner: University of Nairobi
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: March 2013
Department: Modern Foreign Languages (German section)
Supervisor: Prof Carlotta von Maltzan
Dissertation title: Gedachtnis und Genozid im zeitgenossischen historischen Afrika-Roman

“Remembrance and genocide in the contemporary German historical Africa-novel”

Abstract:
Remembrance and Genocide in the Contemporary German historical Africa-Novel In view of the role that literature plays in the remembrance of the Holocaust and in consideration of postcolonial approaches to interpreting the present in relation to the past, this study investigates the questions of remembrance and genocide in the contemporary German historical novel set in Africa. For this purpose, five historical novels will be analyzed. Three of them portray the colonial extermination of the Herero and Nama in German South-West Africa (1904-1907). These are: Gerhard Seyfried’s Herero (2003), Jürgen Leskien’s Einsam in Südwest (1991) and Uwe Timm’s Morenga (1978). The other two novels, Lukas Bärfuss’ Hundert Tage (2008) and Hans Christoph Buch’s Kain und Abel in Afrika (2001) deal with the Rwanda genocide of 1994 and its aftermath. Except for Jürgen Leskien’s Einsam in Südwest, the other novels have been analyzed before, but not from the perspective of ‘literary witnessing to genocide’, as this study will show. Using theoretical approaches of cultural and social memory studies as conceptualized by Jan and Aleida Assmann and adapted by other theorists, the study aims to assess the capacity of the novels as sites of memory. The textual analysis separately explores the question of genocide and that of remembrance and then links the two in a threefold manner. Firstly, it will be shown that genocide results in a myriad of memory constellations which correspond to the different participants’ need to come to terms with their actions and situations e.g. trauma on the part of the victims, guilt on the part of the aggressors and bystanders etc. Secondly, in this study the two genocides in Rwanda and Namibia open up the question of their relation to the Holocaust. It will be shown how the three genocides could be connected by investigating structural aspects, continuities and participants’ constellations. Generally, the fictionalized history this study explores is written from the perspective of guilt and trauma memory. The third aspect of this study will take into consideration recent debates about the German memory culture, including discussions about colonial history, focussed on the institutionalized atrocities committed against inhabitants of colonized territories in Southwest Africa and their claim for compensation. These discussions bring into focus the need to come to terms with an unresolved past, and the possible role of literature in this regard. By analyzing the selected novels, this study will explore the above considerations against the interpretations of historical occurrences as (re)constructed in the narrations. This study’s point of departure is that the historical Africa-Novel functions as an archive of memories of historical events that inspired their writing. The texts will be analysed as performing memory, incorporating memory, interpreting memory and revitalising historical consciousness.

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Dr Merit Kabugo

Dr Merit Kabugo

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: March 2013
Department: African Languages
Supervisor: Prof Marianna Visser
Co-Supervisor: Prof Shaun Viljoen
Dissertation title: Participation and decision making in Luganda: An appraisal and genre-theoretic investigation of spoken discourse at community development project meetings

Abstract: If they don’t come out clearly to show us the true picture of different areas, it means that some areas that do not get the weather forecast cannot profit from their farming activities. This pushes our country into more poverty. If an agency can be identified and charged with the responsibility to disseminate the forecast to the various parts of the country, it would greatly help the farmers and Uganda as a country to develop. These are the words of a participant at one of fifteen Ugandan farmer group meetings that were convened and asked to discuss a tape-recorded seasonal weather forecast, following their own rules of procedure. The audio recordings and transcriptions of these meetings, which are in Luganda, form the object of inquiry for this study. Using a multi-perspective approach to spoken discourse analysis, this study investigates manifestations and patterns of participation and decision-making as they emerge through evaluation and appraisal in the context of participatory community development processes. Taking the discourse of farmer group meetings as a genre of business meetings, where the public is included in decision-making interactions between government and citizens, the study invokes the appraisal theory, genre analysis theory, citizenship talk analysis model, and the business-meeting negotiation approach to explore how participants use Luganda to express assessment and make decisions during interactive discourse. The study identifies three main styles of making decisions, which demonstrate a culturally constructed concept of participation in Luganda. Whereas subtle decision-making involves spontaneous group positions that are not formally announced as a decision, explicit decision-making manifests positions that are overtly announced by a participant. Virtual decision-making involves intermittent moves towards a group position. While some meetings have moderators, several others have the role of moderator performed by various participants. Indeed, in several cases participants take turns to speak in a spontaneous way, without having to seek the permission of the moderator. Despite the difference in styles of decision-making, the overarching goal of participation in this genre of Luganda discourse is to reach consensus and to demonstrate a collective identity. This goal however does not take away the right and freedom of participants to reason critically, negotiate for a position, express conflict, and to question authority. This study breaks the ground for further research into areas of evaluation, intercultural communication, forensic linguistics, professional discourse, and other fields of applied linguistics in Ugandan languages, as well as in other African languages.

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Dr Levis Mugumya

Dr Levis Mugumya

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2011
Graduation date: March 2013
Department: English and African Languages
Supervisor: Prof Marianna Visser
Dissertation title: The discourse of conflict: An appraisal analysis of newspaper genres in English and Runyankore-Rukiga in Uganda (2001-2010)

Abstract: This study explores generic properties of hard news reports and editorials and the nature of linguistic devices invoked by journalists to communicate issues of conflict in Uganda. It describes the textual architecture of a hard news report and an editorial unfolding in the Ugandan print media, and the features that define English-language and Runyankore-Rukiga hard news and editorials. The study further explicates the nature of overt and covert linguistic resources that news reporters and editorialists employ to communicate issues conflict in English and Runyankore- Rukiga across government and private newspapers. It also examines strategies that news reporters employ to establish their stance towards the news event being communicated and seeking to align or disalign with the issue in a manner that seeks to enlist the reader to do likewise. The study employs the multi-dimensional and multi-perspective approaches of discourse analysis to examine news stories and editorials that communicate issues of conflict. Using genre-theoretic and appraisal–theoretic principles, the study explores a diachronic corpus of 53 news reports and 27 editorials drawn from four selected newspapers, Daily Monitor, The New Vision, Entatsi and Orumuri. It therefore, involves a cross-linguistic comparison of English and Runyankore-Rukiga news texts across government and privately-owned newspapers. The investigation demonstrates that news reports in Runyankore-Rukiga and English in the Ugandan print media exemplify similar generic properties and textual organisation to the Englishlanguage hard news reports obtaining in the Anglo-American world. The editorial texts also largely exhibit rhetorical moves similar to the ones employed in the English-language editorials. Nonetheless, a chronological development of news segments occurs across a considerable number of hard news reports in English and Runyankore-Rukiga. This is evident in the use of markers of cohesion such as anaphoric references, time adjuncts, or a mere positioning of events of similar nature in adjacent segments, which leads to some of them hanging together. Consequently, this feature constrains reordering of segments without causing textual unintelligibility. In particular, the Runyankore-Rukiga news reports display a lengthy and value-laden opening whose elements are usually at variance with the body components or even the actual news event. The interpersonal meanings are actuated via metaphors, implicit judgement, non-core lexis, and occasional proverbs. While both government and private newspapers restrain from overt judgement of human conduct, news reporters from the private newspapers invoke implicit attitudes to assess the behaviour of news actors and occasionally highlight the negative actions, particularly of the police, army, or other government agents depicting their conduct as inappropriate. The government leaning newspapers often assess their conduct in positive terms or avoid mentioning events in which their conduct would have hitherto been construed as negative. The study also established that some of the news reports display affect values activated via the description of circumstances or negative actions of the agents on the affected. This description often involves expressions that trigger in the reader feelings of pity, empathy, or pain for the affected while at the same time evoking anger or disgust for the agent. The study demonstrates how news reporters invoke non-core lexical elements or proverbs to intensify the interpersonal value, thus endorsing the attitudinal value expressed by the locution(s).

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Dr Edgar Nabutanyi

Dr Edgar Nabutanyi

Home country: Uganda

PANGeA partner: Makerere University
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: March 2013
Department: English
Supervisor: Prof Grace Musila
Co-Supervisor: Prof Annie Gagiano
Dissertation title: Representations of troubled childhoods in post – 1990 African fiction in Engllish

Abstract: The study explores representations of troubled childhoods in post-1990 African narratives. Defining troubled childhoods as the experiences of children exposed to different forms of violations including physical, psychological, sexual and emotional abuse, the study reflects on depictions of such experiences in a selection of contemporary African fictional texts in English. The study‘s central thesis is that, while particular authors ‘deployment of affective writing techniques offers implicit analysis of troubled childhoods, the knowledge about this reality that such literary texts produce and place in the public sphere resonates with readers because of the narrative textures that both make knowledge concerning such childhoods accessible and create a sense of the urgent plight of such children. They render troubled childhoods grieve able. The study delineates three attributes of the selected texts that explain why such fictions can be considered significant from both social and aesthetic perspectives: namely, their foregrounding of intertwined vectors of violation and/or vulnerability; their skilful use of multi-layered narrative voices and their creation of specific posttraumatic damage and survival tropes. The four main thesis chapters are organised thematically rather than conceptually or theoretically, because representations of troubled childhoods are contextually and experientially entangled. Using Maria Pia Lara‘s notion of ―illocutionary force‖ and specific aspects of trauma and affect theory, the study focuses centrally on how the units of narration construct persuasive and convincing depictions of troubled childhoods while using fiction to convene platforms for reflection on the phenomena of child victims of war violence, abusive parenting, sexual predation and sexual violation.

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2012Ngwira

Dr Emmanuel Ngwira

Home country: Malawi

PANGeA partner: University of Malawi
Year of enrolment: 2010
Graduation date: March 2013
Department: English
Supervisor: Dr Lucy Graham
Dissertation title: Writing marginality: history, authorship and gender in the fiction of Zoe Wicomb and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Abstract: This thesis puts the fiction of Zoë Wicomb and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie into conversation with particular reference to three issues: authorship, history and gender. Apart from anything else, what Wicomb and Adichie have in common is an interest in the representation of marginalised or minority ethnic groups within the nation - the coloured people in the case of Wicomb, and the Igbo in the case of Adichie. Yet what both writers also have in common is that neither seems to advocate the reification of these ethnic groups in reformulations of nationalist discourse. The thesis argues that through their focus on various forms of marginality, both Wicomb and Adichie destabilise traditional notions of nation, authorship, history, gender identity, the boundary between domestic and public life, and the idea of “home”. The thesis focuses on four main topics, each of which is covered in a chapter: the question of authorial voice in relation to history; perspectives offered by women characters in relation to oppressive or traumatic historical moments; oppressive or traumatic histories intruding into the intimate domestic space; and the issue of transnational migration and its (un)homely effects. Employing concepts of metafiction and mise-en-abyme self-reflexivity, the study begins by considering the ways in which Wicomb’s David’s Story and Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun both reflect on the idea of authorship. Focusing on the ways in which each text draws the reader into witnessing authorship, the thesis argues that the two novels can be put into conversation as they both stage dilemmas about authorship in relation to those marginalised by national histories. Following on from this idea of marginalisation by nationalist histories, the thesis then proceeds to examine both writers’ foregrounding of women’s stories that are set in oppressive and/or violent historical times – under apartheid in the case of Wicomb’s You Can’t Get Lost in Cape Town, and during the Biafran war in the case of Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun. Utilising ideas about gender, history and literary history by Tiyambe Zeleza, Florence Stratton and Elleke Boehmer, the study analyses how, beginning with father-daughter relationships, Wicomb and Adichie wean their female characters from their fathers’ control so that they may begin telling their own stories that complicate and subvert the stories that their fathers represent. Drawing on Sigmund Freud’s theory of “the uncanny” and Homi Bhabha’s postcolonial reading of that theory, the study then turns to discuss the ways in which oppressive national histories become manifest in domestic spaces (that are usually marginalised in national histories), turning those spaces into unhomely homes, in Wicomb’s Playing in the Light and Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus. In both novels, purity (whether racial or religious) is cultivated in the family home, but this cultivation of purity, which is reflected symbolically in the kinds of gardens each family grows, evidently has “unhomely” effects that signal the return of the repressed, of that which is disavowed in discourses of purity. Since both Wicomb and Adichie are African-born women authors living abroad, and since the “unhomely” aspects of transnational existence are reflected upon in their fiction, the study finally considers the forms of marginality to the national posed by the migrant. Transnational migration is examined in Wicomb’s The One That Got Away and in Adichie’s The Thing Around Your Neck, placing stories from these two recently published sets of short stories into dialogue.

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