Social-Ecological Resilience and Biosphere-Based Sustainability ScienceAuthor(s): Folke C, R Biggs, A Norström, B Reyers, J Rockström
Link to CST author(s): Prof Reinette (Oonsie) Biggs
Publication: Ecology & Society
Full reference: Folke C, R Biggs, A Norström, B Reyers, J Rockström. 2016. Social-Ecological Resilience and Biosphere-Based Sustainability Science. Ecology & Society 21(3): 41.
Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere. The focus is shifting from the environment as externality to the biosphere as precondition for social justice, economic development, and sustainability. In this article, we exemplify the intertwined nature of social-ecological systems and emphasize that they operate within, and as embedded parts of the biosphere and as such coevolve with and depend on it.