The country is marred by sexual and gender-based violence, and reportedly has some of the world’s highest rates of assault and sexual violence. Sexual and gender-based violence have been shown to be associated with men’s domination of women and other men. In 2019, President Cyril Ramaphosa described gender-based violence as a “national shame”, and in September of that year tens of thousands of women took to the streets to protest the brutal murder of University of Cape Town student Uyinene Mrwetyana and the scourge of rape and femicide.

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